The exact reference on the hardcopy publication is:
Kosterin, O. E. Dragonflies (Odonata) of the city of Omsk.
Acta Hydroentomologica Latvica 3 (1996): 10-21
UDK 595.733 (571.13)
DRAGONFLIES (ODONATA) OF THE CITY OF OMSK
For several years, principally in 1978, 32 dragonfly
species were recorded within the Omsk territory (including 11
ones earlier not recorded for this locality), where they inhabit
several water bodies surrounded by the remainders of natural
vegetation. Besides, 6 species were reported for Omsk by
previous collectors, some of them seem to have wanished from the
city. Some ecological features of different species, including
biotopical preferences and dispersal activity, are generally
Omsk [Омск] is a large city with a population exceeding 1
mln. Nevertheless, its territory confines several water bodies
surrounded by the remainders of natural vegetation, which retain
a relatively rich dragonfly fauna. The author had an opportunity
to examine a number of such "dragonfly reservations"
occasionally for 1977-1983 years and to carry out rather
systematic observations in 1978. Besides, some short visits were
made in 1993 and 1995. The results of these investigations are
OMSK AND ITS WATER BODIES
Omsk is situated almost precisely in the centre of the
forest-steppe zone of West Siberian Lowland, at the junction of
the Om' [Омь] and the Irtysh [Иртыш] rivers. The latter divides
the forest-steppe zone (grove-belt) into conventionally isolated
Ishym and Baraba Forest-Steppes [Ишимская и Барабинская
лесостепи], which, however, are much similar with respect to
their natural conditions. The land relief is almost a perfect
plain slightly disturbed only by a very moderate (up to 127 m
altitude) elevation at the right bank of the Irtysh. The
surrounding land is poor in streams, but there are numerous
rounded and very shallow depressions. They bear either birch
groves (Russ. loc. "kolki", or "okolki" [колки, околки]), which
are the main peculiarity of Siberian forest-steppe landscape, or
Among water bodies of Omsk first of all the Irtysh and Om'
rivers should be mentionned. (Below they will be designated as
Ir and Om, respectively). The former is a great river with a
relatively fast current. Within the city its right bank is
armored into concrete or turned into beaches, but along the left
bank there is a row of elongated islands covered with willow
thickets. They are separated by anastomosing branches with very
slow current where the conditions are favourable for some
reophylic hydrobionts. The Om', being about 40 m wide, has a
clayey bed and a very slow current. There are more or less
sparse willows growing along its banks (which were examined in
eastern suburbs), the emergent vegetation is represented by
sedge, hydrophytes are absent. Both rivers are considerably
polluted, but due to its many-fold greater water flow the Irtysh
is much more pure.
A large territory of the alluvial flat of the Irtysh left
bank within the city is kept free from urbanization as "the Park
of Culture and Rest" [Парк культуры и отдыха]. It is covered by
meadows, open willow (Salix alba L.) woods and crossed with an
ancient Irtysh branch situated 0.5-1 km of the recent Irtysh and
split into several fragments. The largest one is a lake (about
0.5x1 km) with very flat banks covered with reed (Phragmites
ausralis (Gav.) Trin. ex Steudel) thickets, alternating with
more sparse Scirpus lacustris L. The lake is rich in
hydrophytes, such as Ceratophyllum demersum L., Utricullaria
vulgaris L., Lemna trisulca, and others. Because of numerous
water birds inhabiting this lake, where their nesting is
protected, it is called Ptichya Gavan' [Птичья Гавань] - "Bird's
Harbour" (further in the text - Pg). Another fragment of the
ancient branch, called Zamarayka [Замарайка] (further - Za) in
its shape resembles a river segment, being 2 km long and 10-20 m
wide, but with a stagnant water. Its banks, outlined with sedge
margins with rare reed plots, are more abrupt, the depth is
about 0.5 m just at the bank, and 1-1.5 m in the middle. The
water vegetation consists mostly in the Spirogyra alga. (North
end of Zamarayka is widened and resembles Ptichya Gavan', from
which it is separated only by highway embankment. The dragonfly
population of this part corresponds to that of Pg, the data for
Za in Table 1 do not refer to this part). This water body is
surrounded by steppe meadows. Next, there is a small (40x12 m,
with the depth of 12 m) rounded pool (further - Po) between
Zamarayka and the Irtysh with dense submerged vegetation, small
thickets of Ph. australis, Typha latifolia L., and Sparganium
sp., and several large trees of Salix alba on its banks.
Another group of stagnant water bodies examined is a chain
of three ponds called Ozerki [Озерки] (abbreviated further as
Oz). Now they have been filled up and built on. At the moment of
the study they were separated from buildings only by small birch
groves or narrow stripes of trees. The lakes are about 100-150 m
long and 30-50 m wide and rather deep. The upper pond almost
lack water hydrophytes and are very poor in hydrobionts. C.
demersum grows in abundance in the middle one, but for some
reason dragonflies are scarce there. The lower pond has a
diverse water fauna and flora, although the water and emergent
vegetation are not abundant - only small sections of the bank
have small thickets of T. latifolia. Potamogeton crispus L., P.
perfoliatus L., and Spirogyra predominate among hydrophytes.
This habitat of dragonflies to some extent resembles Zamarayka.
Three other points of observations are situated in the
other (elder) "Park of Culture and Rest". They are: 1) an
anonymous small (about 10 m in diameter) and shallow round lake
(further - Pc1) with very flat banks surrounded by a circle of
large willows (Salix alba), but the grass is trampled out. The
emergent vegetation is absent, while P. perfoliatus abounds in
water. Hydrobionts are surprisingly diverse, the characteristic
feature is the extremely numerous larvae of Leptoceridae
(Trichoptera). 2) A very small pool (further - Pc2) surrounded
by meadows and willow bushes, which appears after snow melting
and dries out in July. Therefore, it has no true hydrophytes but
only dense inundated grass and a plot of reed. This pool is
remarkable by an enormous number of ephemeral Conchostraca
crustaceans of Limnadia and Lynceus genera, and tadpoles of Rana
arvalis L.3) A large and deep reservoir filling a former
loam-pit (Pc3) with willow bushes on the banks and Potamogeton
scarcely growing in the water.
The situation of all these water bodies on the map of Omsk
is presented in Fig.1. (There are a number of other ones within
the Omsk territory which remain unexamined.)
THE HISTORY OF THE STUDY OF THE DRAGONFLIES OF OMSK
There are few papers published concerning the dragonfly
fauna of Omsk and its close vicinity (in the works of early
authors, except for Prof. S.D.Lavroff, the label "Omsk" might
imply its quite distant surroundings). Fr.Klapalek (1901)
reported Sympetrum flaveolum L., Lestes sponsa Hans. and
Nechalenia speciosa Charp. collected by E.Zichi. The list of
dragonflies collected by Prof. S.D.Lavroff (Лавров, 1927)
includes Lepterum quadrimaculatum L. [i.e. Libellula
quadrimaculata] - "one of the most numerous species",
Leucorrhinia pectoralis Ch. - "abundant", L. rubicunda L. -
"frequently", Sympetrum sanguineum Mull., S. scoticum Don.
[=S.danae], S.flaveolum L. - "among the most common species",
Sympetrum fonscolombei Selys- one specimen, 16.07. 1920,
Epitheca bimaculata (sibirica) Sel. - "not rarely", Somatochlora
metallica Lind. - "abundant", Cordulia aenea L. - "less
frequently than the previous one", Aeschna juncea L., Ae.
viridis Evers., Ae. cyanea Mull., Ae. grandis L. - "Aeschna fly
in great numbers", Gomphus flavipes Ch., Gomphus vulgatissimus
L. - "less frequently", Lestes sponsa L. and L. nympha Selys
[=L. dryas] - "very common", Sympycna fusca Lind. - "the most
abundant among damseflies", Agrion [Coenagrion] hastulatum and
A. lunulatum [=Coenagrion vernale] - "common".
Dr.V.V.Vnukovsky (Внуковский,.1928) claimed that S.
fonscolombei, Ae. cyanea, G. vulgatissimus, and S. fusca, which
do not inhabit Siberia, had appeared in this list as a result of
erroneous identification. Naturally, S. fusca was certainly S.
p. braueri, while S. fonscolombei was probably S. flaveolum with
reduced wing basal spots. It is intriguing that the list
includes both Ae. viridis and Ae. cyanea, the former being
sometimes identified as the latter by those who are not expert
in odonatology. Maybe Prof. S.D.Lavroff had in fact Ae. affinis
or even Ae. serrata, which is very abundant in Omsk but missing
from the list. For a long time G. vulgatissimus was thought to
be absent in Siberia until Dr. A.Yu. Haritonov [А.Ю.Харитонов]
(personal communication, and in [Харитонова, 1990]) had found it
in Novisibirsk Region. (Later the author of this paper met it
there at the rivers Koyon [Ко\н] and Berd' [Бердь] in the
vicinity of villages Nizhniy Koyon [Нижний Ко\н] and Legostaevo
[Легостаево], respectively). Therefore the presence of G.
vulgatissimus in Omsk seems to be quite possible. In the work
cited above V.V.Vnukovsky reported the list of species collected
in the vicinity of Omsk by G.Ya.Bey-Bienko [Г.Я.Бей-Биенко],
including L. quadrimaculata (L.), L. rubicunda (L.), S.
flaveolum flaveolum (L.), S. vulgatum vulgatum (L.) f. rossicum
Bart., C. aenea aenea (L.), Aeschna crenata Hag., Gomphus
flavipes sibirica Bart., Lestes nympha Selys, L. sponsa (Hans.),
L. virens (Charp.), Sympycna braueri braueri Nob. [=Sympecma
paedisca braueri], Agrion [Coenagrion] concinnum Joh., A.
armatum Charp., and A. vernale Hag. (and, besides, Calopteryx
splendens collected at village Shalashino [Шалашино], the Omsk
District.) The presence of Ae. crenata, which is more common in
the forest zone (Белышев, 1973, p.409-410) and, again, the
absence of the very abundant Ae. serrata leads to the suspection
that these two closely related species were confused.
Later K.J.Valle (1932) reported for Omsk S. flaveolum, Ae.
viridis, L. macrostigma, L. sponsa, S. paedisca. (Besides,
Dr.A.N.Bartenev [Бартенев, 1909] reported Ae.serrata and G.
flavipes for Kalachinsk [Калачинск] and S. vulgatum for
Syropyatskoe [Сыропятское], both localities being situated in
the forest-steppe zone of the Omsk Region.)
THE CURRENT SITUATION OF ODONATA IN OMSK
Table 1 gives the list of the dragonfly species recorded at
the above enumerated water bodies, with conventional degrees of
their abundance. (It should be noted that Ir and Pc3 were paid
less attention and their fauna can really be richer). It
contains 32 species.
Six species: C. aenea, E. bimaculata, Ae. crenata, G.
vulgatissimus, C. concinnum, and N. speciosa, have been reported
for Omsk by previous researches but not found by me. G.
vulgatissimus, being a reophylic species, might wanish from the
very territory of Omsk because the rivers are much more heavily
polluted there than stagnant water reservoirs. N. speciosa is
very rare species and so it could be easily overlooked. The
missing of the other four species can not be easily explained,
especially that of C. aenea, which is a common species
everywhere in Siberia (Белышев, 1973, p. 380). Some detrimental
environmental changes following urbanization of the
surroundings of dragonfly habitats can not be excluded in this
Besides, 12 species, marked with astericks in Table 1, were
not yet recorded in Omsk. The presence of E. cyathigerum, E.
najas, which are common in West Sibiria (Белышев, 1973, pp.588
and 583, respectively), is not surprising. According to Dr.B. F.
Belyshev (1973, pp 410, 424-425, 598-600), Ae. serrata, Ae.
coluberculus Harr. (=Ae.mixta), and I. elegans are rare in
Siberia, however, in Omsk they turned out to be very abundant.
The cited author even considered Ae. serrata as an extincting
species. Oppositely, Dr. G.A.Sukhacheva [Г.А.Сухачева]
(Ph.D.Theses, unpublished) stated its flourishing and being a
zoogeographical indicator of forest-steppe zone of West Siberia.
She observed this species, as well as Ae.mixta, in great numbers
in the Lake Chany [Чаны] basin, the environmental conditions of
which resemble that of Omsk.
Concerning O. cancellatum, S. pedemontanum, Ae. affinis, L.
barbatus, C. pulchellum, C. puella, and I. elegans, Dr. B.F.
Belyshev (1974, pp. 284-297) supposed, although not stated with
certainty, that they may not at all inhabit the territory
between the Urals and the Ob' basin. On the distribution of O.
cancellatum, he wrote: ["The gap in the range in the Irtysh
basin, i.e. at Omsk and Petropavlovsk [Петропавловск], also
attracts attention"] (p.207); on Ae. affinis: ["Its absence at
Omsk City is very indicative."] (p. 423, transl. by O.K.). The
gap in the range of these species in the western part of the
West Siberian Lowland, the so-called Turgay Areal Disjunction
[Тургайский разрыв ареала] he explained by a hypothetical
inundation of this territory in Pleistocene, with subsequent
expansion of dry steppes. As a result, the dragonfly fauna was
exterminated, and later some species might fail to recolonize
the territory and persisted only in the upper Ob' basin.
However, with the accumulation of new materials, which were
summarized in Ph.D.Theses by Dr.G.E.Sukhacheva (1989) but,
unfortunately, are not yet published, the concept of Turgay
Areal Disjunction was abandoned, because 10 of 13 species for
which it was supposed have been found in the territory in
SOME ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF OMSK DRAGONFLIES
As to their ecology the dragonfly species of Omsk fall into
several groups. S. pedemotanum, G.flavipes, G. vulgatissimus,
and Calopteryx sp. are obligatory rheophyls. Naturally, this
group is considerably depleted by water pollution, that is
reflected by the rarity of Calopteryx and disappearing of
G. vulgatissimus. S.pedemontanum inhabits almost currentless
anastomoses (that is common for the species (Белышев,1973,
p.243-244 ) of the Irtysh and is very rare at the Om'.
Although other dragonfly species inhabit different types of
water bodies, they can be classified into groups according to
their preferences of certain types. The first group keep to
rather deep mesotrofic reservoirs with scarce hydrophytes
(represented mostly by Spirogyra) and open banks, such as
Zamarayka and Ozerki. It includes O. cancellatum, S. vulgatum
(although the latter species is also abundant in other
habitats), S. metallica, (and, probably, C. aenea), Ae. viridis,
Ae. grandis, E. cyathigerum, E. najas (which especially demands
an open water surface), and I. elegans. The latter species tends
to rheophylity and so inhabits the Om' banks and Zamarayka,
which retains some traits of a small river and where the species
is extremely abundant.
The next group includes species which develop in very
shallow water, often - in temporary pools or tussock swamps
inundated in spring. They are S. flaveolum, L. sponsa and L.
dryas. (The mutual relationship of the two Lestes species are
not clear, maybe, they tend to exclude each other. They never
are simultaneously abundant at the same site -at least in the
same year - as a rule, the former is much more abundant.
Besides, the former appears earlier and more intensively
scatters from the water bodies.) Nevertheless, all these species
are also common in different types of stagnant water bodies.
In particular, they inhabit in abundance the shallow lakes
with flat banks grown over with reed (exemplified by Ptichya
Gavan'), which are so characteristic for forest-steppe and
steppe zones of West-Siberian Lowland. However, there are two
species which are especially numerous just at such lakes:
Ae.mixta and Ae.serrata.
L.quadrimaculata, L.rubicunda, S. sanguineum, S. danae, L.
macrostigma, S. p. braueri, C. vernale (and, probably, Ae.
affinis, and L. barbatus, which are too scarce to reveal their
ecological standards) seem to have no preference of any type of
stagnant water. L.quadrimaculata, L. rubicunda tend to sparse
emergent vegetation, such as Typha or Scirpus. It should be
noted that L. macrostigma and S. paedisca are the only species
inhabiting a reed swamp situated in the vicinity of the Om'
right bank in eastern suburbs. This swamp is considerably
salinized water, that is evidenced by the thickets of Salicornia
europea L. (Larvae of L.macrostigma were found there in a small
pool crossed by a tiny effluent stream). C. armatum also
inhabits different types of water bodies but prefers tiny
(sometimes extremely polluted) pools, as usual with the surface
covered with Lemna minor L. Therefore, this species, together
with L.quadrimaculata, develops in such pools scattered over
industrial parts of the city.
Lastly, five species, namely, L. pectoralis, Ae. juncea, L.
virens, C. hastulatum, and L. puella were found only at the
small pool (Po) on the Irtysh alluvial flat, the fact I fail to
explain. It worth to note that Ae. juncea, which, according to
Dr.B.F.Belyshev (1973, p. 418), is the most common Aeschna
species in Siberia, was not met with in any other site. This
author stated, however, (p.421) that Ae.juncea is susceptible to
competitive exclusion by Ae.crenata. It can be supposed that the
very abundant Ae.serrata, being a close relative of the latter
species, excludes Ae.juncea as well.
The flight spans of imagines of some abundant species is
given in Fig.2. Note a very late arising of Ae. mixta.
The presented observations are generally in accordance with
the ecological peculiarities of Siberian dragonfly species
described by Dr.B.F.Belyshev (1973), except for the mentionned
reverse relative abundance of Ae.serrata, Ae.mixta, and
There is an interesting point concerning flying activity of
some Aeschnidae species in twilight. The evening trophic
activity was observed in Omsk only for two species, namely,
Ae.grandis and Ae.viridis. The former is normally active at
daytime, but frequently continues flying in twilight. The latter
is strictly a crepuscular dragonfly. Very rarely this species
exhibit some reproductive activity at daytime: egg-laying
females were several time observed (at Po), and in one case a
male was flying above such a female. This species seems not to
be abundant in Omsk (maybe just due to its peculiar flying
regime), but I was acquainted with its habits in Krasnoyarka
[Красноярка] (42 km NNW of Omsk) and Artyn [Артын] (155 km NNE
of Omsk) villages. In the latter site I have taken a systematic
observations for half a month, which are described in the
There seems to be a geographical (most probably - latitudi-
nal) variation in the expression of twilight trophic activity in
different Aeschnidae species. Thus, in northern taiga zone all
dragonflies exhibit only diurnal activity. On the other hand, in
Tajikistan all Aeschnidae (including Ae.mixta) are crepuscular
(Anax parthenope - even night-flying) [Белышев и др., 1989, p.
]. In the Donetsk Region trophic activity of almost all
Aeschnidae (except for Anaciaeschna isosceles Mull.), including
Ae.mixta and Ae. affinis, take place only in evening, when all
they, except for Ae. affinis, fly in large "swarms" and exhibit
no agonistic or reproductive behaviour. Oppositely, in Omsk Ae.
mixta and Ae. affinis have only diurnal activity (and the
swarming flight of Ae. affinis was observed on 24th of July 1979
at 12:00 hr between buildings neighbouring a birch grove).
As a matter of fact, the dragonfly species differ much as
to their ability of dispersal from water and, hence, of
penetration into the housing estates. Naturally, only Sympetrum
species (except for S.pedemontanum) spread intensively. They are
abundant well over the city, laying eggs in every pool on
asphalt. Other dragonflies are rare in the city. Ae.serrata and
Ae.grandis more or less frequently occur at parks or large
clumps of trees, which are rather numerous in Omsk. Less
frequent are L.quadrimaculata and, in a less extent, G.flavipes.
In 1979 C.vernale was extremely abundant and so was found at
lawns all over the city, but in other years damseflies were
extremely scarce in the housing estates.
In unbuilt territories surrounding water bodies, such as
both "Parks of Culture and Rest", dragonflies and damseflies are
very abundant, especially L. quadrimaculata and Aeschna in the
beginning of their flight periods when they disperse for
feeding, and, of course, Sympetrum - all over the flight period.
(Imagines of S.pedemontanum fly only in the close vicinity of
the places where the larvae develop.). In the left bank "Park.."
S.metallica, Leucorrhinia, and young imagines of O.cancellatum
occurs apart from water, but rather rarely. Among damseflies
S.paedisca is the most intensively dispersing species. C.vernale
and L.dryas scatter into a less extent (L.sponsa is observed
apart from water much more rarely than L.dryas). Surprisingly,
the not abundant L.barbatus was met with far from water even
more frequently than near it. Among abundant species
L.macrostigma, E.cyathigerum, E.najas, and I.elegans are
strictly confined to banks. Only young imagines of these species
occur in the grass or forest edges in the close vicinity of
It may be concluded that the dragonfly fauna of the city of
Omsk is rather rich and representative for the region. Its
further preservation depends mostly on keeping the territory of
the Irtysh left bank alluvial flat unbuilt on. The pool (Po),
with extremely rich fauna, deserves a special protection.
The author is grateful to the late Dr.A.V.Sulimov
[А.В.Сулимов] for stimulating the work on Omsk dragonflies, to
Dr. A.Yu.Haritonov for his constant interest to the work and
critically reading the manuscript and to Dr. G.A.Sukhacheva for
kind acquaintance with her Ph.D. Theses.
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Novosibirsk: Nauka, Siberian Division. p. 162-164.
Харитонова И.Н. 1990. К фауне стрекоз (Insecta, Odonata) гор
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}12). Новосибирск: Наука, Сибирское отделение. с.43-44.
[I.N. Haritonova. 1990. To the fauna of dragonflies
(Insecta, Odonata) of the mountains of South Siberia. //
Arthropods and Helmints (Fauna of Siberia, 12th issue).
Novosibirsk: Nauka, Siberian Division. p. 43-44.
Klapalek, Fr. 1901. Neuropteriden in Graf E. Zichy "Dritte
Asiatische Forschungsreise". // Zool. Ergeben. B. II.
Valle, K. J. 1932. Nordasiatische Odonaten. // Annal. Zool.
-Botan. Fennicae, Voname I., N. 2, Helsinki.
Table 1. The occurrence and conventional abundance of dragonfly
species at the sites studied.
Species Water bodies
Ir Om Pg Za Po Oz Pc1 Pc2 Pc3
Calopteryx splendens 2 1a - - - - - - -
Lestes dryas Kirby - - 2 3 3 3 - 5 3
Lestes sponsa Hans. 4 4 5 5 5 2 - 4 -
Lestes barbarus Fabr.* - - 3 3 3 2 - - -
Lestes virens Charp. - - - - 3 - - - -
Lestes macrostigma Ever. 3 3 3 3 3 3 - - 2
Sympecma paedisca braueri Bian- 3 5 5 5 5 3 2 4
Coenagrion vernale Hag. - - 5 4 5 5 3 - 4
Coenagrion armatum Charp. - - 3 3 3 3 - - 3
Coenagrion hastulatum Charp. - - - - 4 - - - -
Coenagrion pulchellum Lind.* - - 3 - 3 - - - 4
Coenagrion puella L.* - - - - 3 - - - -
Enallagma cyathigerum Charp.* - 3 4 5 4 5 2 - 3
Erythromma najas Hansem.* - 3 - 5 3 5 3 - 4
Ischnura elegans Lind.* - 3 - 5 - - - - -
Aeschna juncea L. - - - - 1 - - - -
Aeschna affinis Lind.* - 2 2 2 2 - - - -
Aeschna mixta Latr.* - 4 5 4 5 3 - - -
Aeschna viridis Evans. 1 - ? 3 2 2 - - -
Aeschna grandis L. 3 - 2 4 5 5 - - ?
Aeschna serrata Hag.* 2 2 5 4 3 3 - - 5
Gomphus flavipes Charp. 3 3 - - - - - - -
Libellula quadrimaculata L. - 1 5 4 5 4 3 2 5
Orthetrum cancellatum L.* - - ? 4 - 1b - - -
Leucorrhinia rubicunda L. - - - ? 3 - 2 2 3
Leucorrhinia pectoralis Charp.- - - - 3 - - - -
Sympetrum pedemontanum All.* 3 1 - - - - - - -
Sympetrum sanguineum Mull. ? ? 3 3 3 3 ? 3 ?
Sympetrum danae Sulz. 2 2 5 4 5 5 3 5 4
Sympetrum flaveolum L. 2 2 5 4 5 5 3 5 4
Sympetrum vulgatim L. 4 2 5 5 5 5 3 3 3
Somatochlora metallica Lind. - 1 - 4c 3 3 - - -
Conventional abundance: 1 - only several records; 2 - rare; 3 -
common; 4 - abundant; 5 - extremely abundant; ? - expected.
a. Flying individuals probably of C.splendens were observed
(but not caught) trice in 1975-1976. Later, in August 1993 and
1995, C. splendens was observed and collected at the bank of the
Irtysh left arm, where it was not rare.
b. The only male was observed on 25th of June 1978.
c. A female specimen was caught with heavy dark suffusion of
distal parts of the wings.
Figure 1. The scheme of location of the examined water bodies.
Ir - the Irtysh (the point of observations); the Om (the point
of observations); Pg - Ptichya Gavan'; Za - Zamarayka; Po - The
pool in the Irtysh left bank alluvial flat; Oz - Ozerky; Pc1 -
the pool in the elder "Park of Culture and Rest"; Pc2 - the
temporary pool in the same Park; Pc3 - the former loam-pit in
the same Park. For explanation see text.
The city territory is shaded, the water bodies shown black, the
large parks and unbuilt territories remained blank.
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