The exact reference on the hardcopy publication is:
Kosterin, O. E. Dragonflies (Odonata) of the city of Omsk. 
Acta Hydroentomologica Latvica 3 (1996): 10-21

UDK 595.733 (571.13) 


     For several years, principally in 1978, 32 dragonfly 
species were recorded within the Omsk territory (including 11 
ones earlier not recorded for this locality), where they inhabit 
several water bodies surrounded by the remainders of natural 
vegetation. Besides, 6 species were reported for Omsk by 
previous collectors, some of them seem to have wanished from the 
city. Some ecological features of different species, including 
biotopical preferences and dispersal activity, are generally 

     Omsk [Омск] is a large city with a population exceeding 1 
mln. Nevertheless, its territory confines several water bodies 
surrounded by the remainders of natural vegetation, which retain 
a relatively rich dragonfly fauna. The author had an opportunity 
to examine a number of such "dragonfly reservations" 
occasionally for 1977-1983 years and to carry out rather 
systematic observations in 1978. Besides, some short visits were 
made in 1993 and 1995. The results of these investigations are 
given below. 


     Omsk is situated almost precisely in the centre of the 
forest-steppe zone of West Siberian Lowland, at the junction of 
the Om' [Омь] and the Irtysh [Иртыш] rivers. The latter divides 
the forest-steppe zone (grove-belt) into conventionally isolated 
Ishym and Baraba Forest-Steppes [Ишимская и Барабинская 
лесостепи], which, however, are much similar with respect to 
their natural conditions. The land relief is almost a perfect 
plain slightly disturbed only by a very moderate (up to 127 m 
altitude) elevation at the right bank of the Irtysh. The 
surrounding land is poor in streams, but there are numerous 
rounded and very shallow depressions. They bear either birch 
groves (Russ. loc. "kolki", or "okolki" [колки, околки]), which 
are the main peculiarity of Siberian forest-steppe landscape, or 
shallow lakes. 
     Among water bodies of Omsk first of all the Irtysh and Om' 
rivers should be mentionned. (Below they will be designated as 
Ir and Om, respectively). The former is a great river with a 
relatively fast current. Within the city its right bank is 
armored into concrete or turned into beaches, but along the left 
bank there is a row of elongated islands covered with willow 
thickets. They are separated by anastomosing branches with very 
slow current where the conditions are favourable for some 
reophylic hydrobionts. The Om', being about 40 m wide,  has a 
clayey bed and a very slow current. There are  more or less 
sparse willows growing along its banks (which were examined in 
eastern suburbs), the emergent vegetation is represented by 
sedge, hydrophytes are absent. Both rivers are considerably 
polluted, but due to its many-fold greater water flow the Irtysh 
is much more pure. 
     A large territory of the alluvial flat of the Irtysh left 
bank within the city is kept free from urbanization as "the Park 
of Culture and Rest" [Парк культуры и отдыха]. It is covered by 
meadows, open willow (Salix alba L.) woods and crossed with an 
ancient Irtysh branch situated 0.5-1 km of the recent Irtysh and 
split into several fragments. The largest one is a lake (about 
0.5x1 km) with very flat banks covered with reed (Phragmites 
ausralis (Gav.) Trin. ex Steudel) thickets, alternating with 
more sparse Scirpus lacustris L. The lake is rich in 
hydrophytes, such as Ceratophyllum demersum L., Utricullaria 
vulgaris L., Lemna trisulca, and others. Because of numerous 
water birds inhabiting this lake, where their nesting is 
protected, it is called Ptichya Gavan' [Птичья Гавань] - "Bird's 
Harbour" (further in the text - Pg). Another fragment of the 
ancient branch, called Zamarayka [Замарайка] (further - Za) in 
its shape resembles a river segment, being 2 km long and 10-20 m 
wide, but with a stagnant water. Its banks, outlined with sedge 
margins with rare reed plots, are more abrupt, the depth is 
about 0.5 m just at the bank, and 1-1.5 m in the middle. The 
water vegetation consists mostly in the Spirogyra alga. (North 
end of Zamarayka is widened and resembles Ptichya Gavan', from 
which it is separated only by highway embankment. The dragonfly 
population of this part corresponds to that of Pg, the data for 
Za in Table 1 do not refer to this part). This water body is 
surrounded by steppe meadows. Next, there is a small (40x12 m, 
with the depth of 12 m) rounded pool (further - Po) between 
Zamarayka and the Irtysh with dense submerged vegetation, small 
thickets of Ph. australis, Typha latifolia L., and Sparganium 
sp., and several large trees of Salix alba on its banks. 
     Another group of stagnant water bodies examined is a chain 
of three ponds called Ozerki [Озерки] (abbreviated further as 
Oz). Now they have been filled up and built on. At the moment of 
the study they were separated from buildings only by small birch 
groves or narrow stripes of trees. The lakes are about 100-150 m 
long and 30-50 m wide and rather deep. The upper pond almost 
lack water hydrophytes and are very poor in hydrobionts. C. 
demersum grows in abundance in the middle one, but for some 
reason dragonflies are scarce there. The lower pond has a 
diverse water fauna and flora, although the water and emergent 
vegetation are not abundant - only small sections of the bank 
have small thickets of T. latifolia. Potamogeton crispus L., P. 
perfoliatus L., and Spirogyra predominate among hydrophytes. 
This habitat of dragonflies to some extent resembles Zamarayka. 
     Three other points of observations are situated in the 
other (elder) "Park of Culture and Rest". They are: 1) an 
anonymous small (about 10 m in diameter) and shallow round lake 
(further - Pc1) with very flat banks surrounded by a circle of 
large willows (Salix alba), but the grass is trampled out. The 
emergent vegetation is absent, while P. perfoliatus abounds in 
water. Hydrobionts are surprisingly diverse, the characteristic 
feature is the extremely numerous larvae of Leptoceridae 
(Trichoptera). 2) A very small pool (further - Pc2) surrounded 
by meadows and willow bushes, which appears after snow melting 
and dries out in July. Therefore, it has no true hydrophytes but 
only dense inundated grass and a plot of reed. This pool is 
remarkable by an enormous number of ephemeral Conchostraca 
crustaceans of Limnadia and Lynceus genera, and tadpoles of Rana 
arvalis L.3) A large and deep reservoir filling a former 
loam-pit (Pc3) with willow bushes on the banks and Potamogeton 
scarcely growing in the water.
     The situation of all these water bodies on the map of Omsk 
is presented in Fig.1. (There are a number of other ones within 
the Omsk territory which remain unexamined.)

     There are few papers published concerning the dragonfly 
fauna of Omsk and its close vicinity (in the works of early 
authors, except for Prof. S.D.Lavroff, the label "Omsk" might 
imply its quite distant surroundings). Fr.Klapalek (1901) 
reported Sympetrum flaveolum L., Lestes sponsa Hans. and 
Nechalenia speciosa Charp. collected by E.Zichi. The list of 
dragonflies collected by Prof. S.D.Lavroff (Лавров, 1927) 
includes Lepterum quadrimaculatum L. [i.e. Libellula 
quadrimaculata] - "one of the most numerous species", 
Leucorrhinia pectoralis Ch. - "abundant", L. rubicunda L. - 
"frequently", Sympetrum sanguineum Mull., S. scoticum Don. 
[=S.danae], S.flaveolum L. - "among the most common species", 
Sympetrum fonscolombei Selys- one specimen, 16.07. 1920, 
Epitheca bimaculata (sibirica) Sel. - "not rarely", Somatochlora 
metallica Lind. - "abundant", Cordulia aenea L. - "less 
frequently than the previous one", Aeschna juncea L., Ae. 
viridis Evers., Ae. cyanea Mull., Ae. grandis L. - "Aeschna fly 
in great numbers", Gomphus flavipes Ch., Gomphus vulgatissimus 
L. - "less frequently", Lestes sponsa L. and L. nympha Selys 
[=L. dryas] - "very common", Sympycna fusca Lind. - "the most 
abundant among damseflies", Agrion [Coenagrion] hastulatum and 
A. lunulatum [=Coenagrion vernale] - "common". 
     Dr.V.V.Vnukovsky (Внуковский,.1928) claimed that S. 
fonscolombei, Ae. cyanea, G. vulgatissimus, and S. fusca, which 
do not inhabit Siberia, had appeared in this list as a result of 
erroneous identification. Naturally, S. fusca was certainly S. 
p. braueri, while S. fonscolombei was probably S. flaveolum with 
reduced wing basal spots. It is intriguing that the list 
includes both Ae. viridis and Ae. cyanea, the former being 
sometimes identified as the latter by those who are not expert 
in odonatology. Maybe Prof. S.D.Lavroff had in fact Ae. affinis 
or even Ae. serrata, which is very abundant in Omsk but missing 
from the list. For a long time G. vulgatissimus was thought to 
be absent in Siberia until Dr. A.Yu. Haritonov [А.Ю.Харитонов] 
(personal communication, and in [Харитонова, 1990]) had found it 
in Novisibirsk Region. (Later the author of this paper met it 
there at the rivers Koyon [Ко\н] and Berd' [Бердь] in the 
vicinity of villages Nizhniy Koyon [Нижний Ко\н] and Legostaevo 
[Легостаево], respectively). Therefore the presence of G. 
vulgatissimus in Omsk seems to be quite possible. In the work 
cited above V.V.Vnukovsky reported the list of species collected 
in the vicinity of Omsk by G.Ya.Bey-Bienko [Г.Я.Бей-Биенко], 
including  L. quadrimaculata (L.), L. rubicunda (L.), S. 
flaveolum flaveolum (L.), S. vulgatum vulgatum (L.) f. rossicum 
Bart., C. aenea aenea (L.), Aeschna crenata Hag., Gomphus 
flavipes sibirica Bart., Lestes nympha Selys, L. sponsa (Hans.), 
L. virens (Charp.), Sympycna braueri braueri Nob. [=Sympecma 
paedisca braueri], Agrion [Coenagrion] concinnum Joh., A. 
armatum Charp., and A. vernale Hag. (and, besides, Calopteryx 
splendens collected at village Shalashino [Шалашино], the Omsk 
District.) The presence of Ae. crenata, which is more common in 
the forest zone (Белышев, 1973, p.409-410) and, again, the 
absence of the very abundant Ae. serrata leads to the suspection 
that these two closely related species were confused. 
     Later K.J.Valle (1932) reported for Omsk S. flaveolum, Ae. 
viridis, L. macrostigma, L. sponsa, S. paedisca. (Besides, 
Dr.A.N.Bartenev [Бартенев, 1909] reported Ae.serrata and G. 
flavipes for Kalachinsk [Калачинск] and S. vulgatum for 
Syropyatskoe [Сыропятское], both localities being situated in 
the forest-steppe zone of the Omsk Region.)


     Table 1 gives the list of the dragonfly species recorded at 
the above enumerated water bodies, with conventional degrees of 
their abundance. (It should be noted that Ir and Pc3 were paid 
less attention and their fauna can really be richer). It 
contains 32 species. 
     Six species: C. aenea, E. bimaculata, Ae. crenata, G. 
vulgatissimus, C. concinnum, and N. speciosa, have been reported 
for Omsk by previous researches but not found by me. G. 
vulgatissimus, being a reophylic species, might wanish from the 
very territory of Omsk because the rivers are much more heavily 
polluted there than stagnant water reservoirs. N. speciosa is 
very rare species and so it could be easily overlooked. The 
missing of the other four species can not be easily explained, 
especially that of C. aenea, which is a common species 
everywhere in Siberia (Белышев, 1973, p. 380). Some detrimental 
environmental changes  following urbanization of the 
surroundings of dragonfly habitats can not be excluded in this 
     Besides, 12 species, marked with astericks in Table 1, were 
not yet recorded in Omsk. The presence of E. cyathigerum, E. 
najas, which are common in West Sibiria (Белышев, 1973, pp.588 
and 583, respectively), is not surprising. According to Dr.B. F. 
Belyshev (1973, pp 410, 424-425, 598-600), Ae. serrata, Ae. 
coluberculus Harr. (=Ae.mixta), and I. elegans are rare in 
Siberia, however, in Omsk they turned out to be very abundant. 
The cited author even considered Ae. serrata as an extincting 
species. Oppositely, Dr. G.A.Sukhacheva [Г.А.Сухачева] 
(Ph.D.Theses, unpublished) stated its flourishing and being a 
zoogeographical indicator of forest-steppe zone of West Siberia. 
She observed this species, as well as Ae.mixta, in great numbers 
in the Lake Chany [Чаны] basin, the environmental conditions of 
which resemble that of Omsk. 
     Concerning O. cancellatum, S. pedemontanum, Ae. affinis, L. 
barbatus, C. pulchellum, C. puella, and I. elegans, Dr. B.F. 
Belyshev (1974, pp. 284-297) supposed, although not stated with 
certainty, that they may not at all inhabit the territory 
between the Urals and the Ob' basin. On the distribution of O. 
cancellatum, he wrote: ["The gap in the range in the Irtysh 
basin, i.e. at Omsk and Petropavlovsk [Петропавловск], also 
attracts attention"] (p.207); on Ae. affinis: ["Its absence at 
Omsk City is very indicative."] (p. 423, transl. by O.K.). The 
gap in the range of these species in the western part of the 
West Siberian Lowland, the so-called Turgay Areal Disjunction 
[Тургайский разрыв ареала] he explained by a hypothetical 
inundation of this territory in Pleistocene, with subsequent 
expansion of dry steppes. As a result, the dragonfly fauna was 
exterminated, and later some species might fail to recolonize 
the territory and persisted only in the upper Ob' basin. 
However, with the accumulation of new materials, which were 
summarized in Ph.D.Theses by Dr.G.E.Sukhacheva (1989) but, 
unfortunately, are not yet published, the concept of Turgay 
Areal Disjunction was abandoned, because 10 of 13 species for 
which it was supposed have been found in the territory in 


     As to their ecology the dragonfly species of Omsk fall into 
several groups. S. pedemotanum, G.flavipes, G. vulgatissimus, 
and Calopteryx sp. are obligatory rheophyls. Naturally, this 
group is considerably depleted by water pollution, that is 
reflected by the rarity of Calopteryx and disappearing of 
G. vulgatissimus. S.pedemontanum inhabits almost currentless 
anastomoses (that is common for the species (Белышев,1973, 
p.243-244 ) of the Irtysh and is very rare at the Om'.
     Although other dragonfly species inhabit different types of 
water bodies, they can be classified into groups according to 
their preferences of certain types. The first group keep to 
rather deep mesotrofic reservoirs with scarce hydrophytes 
(represented mostly by Spirogyra) and open banks, such as 
Zamarayka and Ozerki. It includes O. cancellatum, S. vulgatum 
(although the latter species is also abundant in other 
habitats), S. metallica, (and, probably, C. aenea), Ae. viridis, 
Ae. grandis, E. cyathigerum, E. najas (which especially demands 
an open water surface), and I. elegans. The latter species tends 
to rheophylity and so inhabits the Om' banks and Zamarayka, 
which retains some traits of a small river and where the species 
is extremely abundant.
      The next group includes species which develop in very 
shallow water, often - in temporary pools or tussock swamps 
inundated in spring. They are S. flaveolum, L. sponsa and L. 
dryas. (The mutual relationship of the two Lestes species are 
not clear, maybe, they tend to exclude each other. They never 
are simultaneously abundant at the same site -at least in the 
same year - as a rule, the former is much more abundant. 
Besides, the former appears earlier and more intensively 
scatters from the water bodies.) Nevertheless, all these species 
are also common in different types of stagnant water bodies. 
     In particular, they inhabit in abundance the shallow lakes 
with flat banks grown over with reed (exemplified by Ptichya 
Gavan'), which are so characteristic for forest-steppe and 
steppe zones of West-Siberian Lowland. However, there are two 
species which are especially numerous just at such lakes: 
Ae.mixta and Ae.serrata. 
     L.quadrimaculata, L.rubicunda, S. sanguineum, S. danae, L. 
macrostigma, S. p. braueri, C. vernale (and, probably, Ae. 
affinis, and L. barbatus, which are too scarce to reveal their 
ecological standards) seem to have no preference of any type of 
stagnant water. L.quadrimaculata, L. rubicunda tend to sparse 
emergent vegetation, such as Typha or Scirpus. It should be 
noted that L. macrostigma and S. paedisca are the only species 
inhabiting  a reed swamp situated in the vicinity of the Om' 
right bank in eastern suburbs. This swamp is considerably 
salinized water, that is evidenced by the thickets of Salicornia 
europea L. (Larvae of L.macrostigma were found there in a small 
pool crossed by a tiny effluent stream). C. armatum also 
inhabits different types of water bodies but prefers tiny 
(sometimes extremely polluted) pools, as usual with the surface 
covered with Lemna minor L. Therefore, this species, together 
with L.quadrimaculata, develops in such pools scattered over 
industrial parts of the city.
     Lastly, five species, namely, L. pectoralis, Ae. juncea, L. 
virens, C. hastulatum, and L. puella were found only at the 
small pool (Po) on the Irtysh alluvial flat, the fact I fail to 
explain. It worth to note that Ae. juncea, which, according to 
Dr.B.F.Belyshev (1973, p. 418), is the most common Aeschna 
species in Siberia, was not met with in any other site. This 
author stated, however, (p.421) that Ae.juncea is susceptible to 
competitive exclusion by Ae.crenata. It can be supposed that the 
very abundant Ae.serrata, being a close relative of the latter 
species, excludes Ae.juncea as well.
     The flight spans of imagines of some abundant species is 
given in Fig.2. Note a very late arising of Ae. mixta. 
     The presented observations are generally in accordance with 
the ecological peculiarities of Siberian dragonfly species 
described by Dr.B.F.Belyshev (1973), except for the mentionned 
reverse relative abundance of Ae.serrata, Ae.mixta, and 
     There is an interesting point concerning flying activity of 
some Aeschnidae species in twilight. The evening trophic 
activity was observed in Omsk only for two species, namely, 
Ae.grandis and Ae.viridis. The former is normally active at 
daytime, but frequently continues flying in twilight. The latter 
is strictly a crepuscular dragonfly. Very rarely this species 
exhibit some reproductive activity at daytime: egg-laying 
females were several time observed (at Po), and in one case a 
male was flying above such a female. This species seems not to 
be abundant in Omsk (maybe just due to its peculiar flying 
regime), but I was acquainted with its habits in Krasnoyarka 
[Красноярка] (42 km NNW of Omsk) and Artyn [Артын] (155 km NNE 
of Omsk) villages. In the latter site I have taken a systematic 
observations for half a month, which are described in the 
     There seems to be a geographical (most probably - latitudi- 
nal) variation in the expression of twilight trophic activity in 
different Aeschnidae species. Thus, in northern taiga zone all 
dragonflies exhibit only diurnal activity. On the other hand, in 
Tajikistan all Aeschnidae (including Ae.mixta) are crepuscular 
(Anax parthenope - even night-flying) [Белышев и др., 1989, p. 
]. In the Donetsk Region trophic activity of almost all 
Aeschnidae (except for Anaciaeschna isosceles Mull.), including 
Ae.mixta and Ae. affinis, take place only in evening, when all 
they, except for Ae. affinis, fly in large "swarms" and exhibit 
no agonistic or reproductive behaviour. Oppositely, in Omsk Ae. 
mixta and Ae. affinis have only diurnal activity (and the 
swarming flight of Ae. affinis was observed on 24th of July 1979 
at 12:00 hr between buildings neighbouring a birch grove).
      As a matter of fact, the dragonfly species differ much as 
to their ability of dispersal from water and, hence, of 
penetration into the housing estates. Naturally, only Sympetrum 
species (except for S.pedemontanum) spread intensively. They are 
abundant well over the city, laying eggs in every pool on 
asphalt. Other dragonflies are rare in the city. Ae.serrata and 
Ae.grandis more or less frequently occur at parks or large 
clumps of trees, which are rather numerous in Omsk. Less 
frequent are L.quadrimaculata and, in a less extent, G.flavipes. 
In 1979 C.vernale was extremely abundant and so was found at 
lawns all over the city, but in other years damseflies were 
extremely scarce in the housing estates. 
     In unbuilt territories surrounding water bodies, such as 
both "Parks of Culture and Rest", dragonflies and damseflies are 
very abundant, especially L. quadrimaculata and Aeschna in the 
beginning of their flight periods when they disperse for 
feeding, and, of course, Sympetrum - all over the flight period. 
(Imagines of S.pedemontanum fly only in the close vicinity of 
the places where the larvae develop.). In the left bank "Park.." 
S.metallica, Leucorrhinia, and young imagines of O.cancellatum 
occurs apart from water, but rather rarely. Among damseflies 
S.paedisca is the most intensively dispersing species. C.vernale 
and L.dryas scatter into a less extent (L.sponsa is observed 
apart from water much more rarely than L.dryas). Surprisingly, 
the not abundant L.barbatus was met with far from water even 
more frequently than near it. Among abundant species 
L.macrostigma, E.cyathigerum, E.najas, and I.elegans are 
strictly confined to banks. Only young imagines of these species 
occur in the grass or forest edges in the close vicinity of 


     It may be concluded that the dragonfly fauna of the city of 
Omsk is rather rich and representative for the region. Its 
further preservation depends mostly on keeping the territory of 
the Irtysh left bank alluvial flat unbuilt on. The pool (Po), 
with extremely rich fauna, deserves a special protection.


     The author is grateful to the late Dr.A.V.Sulimov 
[А.В.Сулимов] for stimulating the work on Omsk dragonflies, to 
Dr. A.Yu.Haritonov for his constant interest to the work and 
critically reading the manuscript and to Dr. G.A.Sukhacheva for 
kind acquaintance with her Ph.D. Theses.


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Table 1. The occurrence and conventional abundance of  dragonfly 
species at the sites studied.
           Species                          Water bodies
                              Ir Om Pg Za Po Oz Pc1 Pc2 Pc3 
Calopteryx splendens          2  1a -  -  -  -  -   -   -
Lestes dryas Kirby            -  -  2  3  3  3  -   5   3
Lestes sponsa Hans.           4  4  5  5  5  2  -   4   -
Lestes barbarus Fabr.*        -  -  3  3  3  2  -   -   -
Lestes virens Charp.          -  -  -  -  3  -  -   -   -
Lestes macrostigma Ever.      3  3  3  3  3  3  -   -   2
Sympecma paedisca braueri Bian-  3  5  5  5  5  3   2   4
Coenagrion vernale Hag.       -  -  5  4  5  5  3   -   4
Coenagrion armatum Charp.     -  -  3  3  3  3  -   -   3
Coenagrion hastulatum Charp.  -  -  -  -  4  -  -   -   -
Coenagrion pulchellum Lind.*  -  -  3  -  3  -  -   -   4
Coenagrion puella L.*          -  -  -  -  3  -  -   -   -
Enallagma cyathigerum Charp.* -  3  4  5  4  5  2   -   3
Erythromma najas Hansem.*     -  3  -  5  3  5  3   -   4
Ischnura elegans Lind.*       -  3  -  5  -  -  -   -   -
Aeschna juncea L.             -  -  -  -  1  -  -   -   -
Aeschna affinis Lind.*        -  2  2  2  2  -  -   -   -
Aeschna mixta Latr.*          -  4  5  4  5  3  -   -   -
Aeschna viridis Evans.        1  -  ?  3  2  2  -   -   -
Aeschna grandis L.            3  -  2  4  5  5  -   -   ?
Aeschna serrata Hag.*         2  2  5  4  3  3  -   -   5
Gomphus flavipes Charp.       3  3  -  -  -  -  -   -   -
Libellula quadrimaculata L.   -  1  5  4  5  4  3   2   5
Orthetrum cancellatum L.*     -  -  ?  4  -  1b  -   -   -
Leucorrhinia rubicunda L.     -  -  -  ?  3  -  2   2   3
Leucorrhinia pectoralis Charp.-  -  -  -  3  -  -   -   -
Sympetrum pedemontanum All.*  3  1  -  -  -  -  -   -   -
Sympetrum sanguineum Mull.    ?  ?  3  3  3  3  ?   3   ?
Sympetrum danae Sulz.         2  2  5  4  5  5  3   5   4
Sympetrum flaveolum L.        2  2  5  4  5  5  3   5   4
Sympetrum vulgatim L.         4  2  5  5  5  5  3   3   3
Somatochlora metallica Lind.  -  1  -  4c  3  3  -   -   -

Conventional abundance: 1 - only several records; 2 - rare; 3  - 
common; 4 - abundant; 5 - extremely abundant; ? - expected.

a. Flying individuals probably of C.splendens were observed 
(but not caught) trice in 1975-1976. Later, in August 1993 and 
1995, C. splendens was observed and collected at the bank of the 
Irtysh left arm, where it was not rare. 
b. The only male was observed on 25th of June 1978. 
c. A female specimen was caught with heavy dark suffusion of 
distal parts of the wings. 

Figure 1. The scheme of location of the examined water bodies. 
Ir - the Irtysh (the point of observations); the Om (the point 
of observations); Pg - Ptichya Gavan'; Za - Zamarayka; Po - The 
pool in the Irtysh left bank alluvial flat; Oz - Ozerky; Pc1 - 
the pool in the elder "Park of Culture and Rest"; Pc2 - the 
temporary pool in the same Park; Pc3 - the former loam-pit in 
the same Park. For explanation see text.
The city territory is shaded, the water bodies shown black, the 
large parks and unbuilt territories remained blank.

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