PNL 

Volume 22

1990

FEATURES

pages 92-95

FIELD PEA BREEDING IN POLAND

Swiecicki, W.K.

and K. Leraczyk

Plant Breeding Station, Wiatrowo

62-100 Wagrowiec, Poland

The significance of the field pea for Polish agriculture (around 280,060 ha) depends on several features: its use in crop rotation (N-fixation, cultivation of so called "anthocyanin" types which are less demanding forms on light soils) , use of the seeds as a source of protein for human and animal consumption, and use of the green mass as fodder for animals and as green manure.

In Poland light soils make up around two-thirds of the cultivated area which was the main reason why in the past, long stem, anthocyanin types were the main forms cultivated for green mass (so called "peluschka"). However, the importance of species cultivated for seeds as a source of protein has strongly increased in the past two decades. In particular, pea, lupin, and field bean have been used to replace the import of soyabean.

In the breeding programme, the following characters constitute the accepted ideotype.

Green mass varieties (mainly with anthocyanin):

high yield of green and dry mass,

earlyness,

maturity term adapted to accompanying crops in mixtures,

small soil requirements,

high seed yield (for seed production, as well as for cultivation for fodder seeds on light soils), resistance to viruses (BYMV, PEMV, PSbMV).

Seed varieties (mainly without anthocyanin).

high yield of seeds,

lodging resistance (e.g. le and af genes),

protein content in seeds,

seed quality (cooking ability, appearance, carotenoid content, e.g. the gene Orc) .

disease resistance (PSbMV, BYMV, BEMV, Ascochyta, Fusarium)

high yield of seeds in genotypes with short stem and anthocyanin for cultivation on light soils.

Significant progress has been made in the last 10-15 years toward meeting these objectives. In the first half of the seventies Polish pea varieties yielded about 10 q/ha less than the best foreign varieties. At the end of the seventies the difference was smaller. In state trials in 1984-87 for the first time a Polish variety yielded better than the best foreign variety (Fig. 1). Comparing the seed yield of cv Kujawski Wczesny (the best in the middle of the seventies) with the yield of successively registered, new varieties we obtained an increase of about 40% in the period 1977-89 (Fig. 2). In particular, stem length has been reduced (optimum 75-90 cm) and varieties with the gene afila have been registered.

Progress has also been made with the breeding of fodder varieties. In particular, a negative correlation between green mass yield and earlyness, as well as seed yield, has been broken (Fig. 3). It is likely that varieties for seeds with anthocyanin but short stemmed (in the type of Gomik and Pegro) will, in the near future, yield on the same level as dwarf, white-flowered varieties. Many new varieties have been registered leading to the removal of old, less valuable ones (Table 1 - compare with the list in PNL 1982).

In Poland pea breeding is carried out by state institutions like breeding enterprises, the Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization and, on a small scale, by departments of genetics in agricultural academies. An Association of Pea Breeders was created to coordinate the breeding programme, field trials in different locations, laboratory tests and exchange of gene resources. This group also cooperates with breeders in Germany and Czechoslovakia. The Polish Gene Bank is situated in the main pea breeding station at Wiatrowo which cooperates with the Department of National Gene Resources at Radzikow. Twice a year meetings are organized: in winter, trial results are discussed, new trials planned, and lectures are presented; in summer, field excursions are organized. Fig. 4 shows institutions for field pea breeding in Poland. Garden varieties are bred by some other stations in a separate program.

The Poland registration of cultivars is conducted under state control and is based on assessment of distinctness, homogeneity, stability and agricultural value. Very briefly, breeders have to present results of preliminary trials at not less than two locations and for two years before potential varieties can be entered in state trials. Registration of new varieties is based on estimation of three years trials from about 10 locations.

Table 1. The register of Polish field pea cultivars (1989)

Name of variety

Breeding firm

Year of registration

Dry seed varieties (genotype aa)

Karat

Sobotka

1981

Opal

Wiatrowo

1982

Aster

Lipie

1984

Koral

Sobotka

1984

Legenda (af)

Prusinowo

1984

Ramir (af)

Przebedowo

1985

Elektron

Wiatrowo

1986

Perkun

Wiatrowo

1986

Ikar

Wiatrowo

1987

Ergo

Lagiewniki

1988

Gniewko

Lipie

1988

Hermes

Wiatrowo

1988

Szafir

Sobotka

1988

Bosman (af)

Prusinowo

1989

Diament

Sobotka

1989

Miko (af)

Przebedowo

1989

Rodan

Lagiewniki

1989

Dry seed/fodder varieties

Mige (a)

Przebedowo

1983

Jaran (a)

Pasterzowice

1986

Kama (a)

Kosieczyn

1989

Gomik (A)

Przebedowo

1986

Pegro (A)

Wiatrowo

1988

Green mass varieties (genotype AA)

Fioletowa

Przebedowo

1974

Mazurska

Szyldak

1975

Fidelia

Wiatrowo

1980

Helia

Marchwacz

1982

Mewa

Przebedowo

1982

Kormoran

Szyldak

1988