66 RESEARCH REPORTS PNL Volume 12 1980
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE VARIATION OP PROTEIN IN PEA SEEDS
Swiecicki, W., Sr. Plant Experiment Station, Wiatrowo, Poland
A collection of Pisum sp. comprising approximately 1,500 lines classified
according to Lehmann (1954) is gathered in the Gene Bank at Wiatrowo (see pg. 78
In 1976, following a check analysis for crude protein content in seeds, 123
lines were taken for detailed examination. These were selected from major
taxa, three each. In the period 1975-1977, one each of 27 forms were selected.
From representative seed batches, 10 samples were taken of each line
and analyzed for protein content (Kjelfos Nitrogen Analyzer). Statistical
calculations were made on MC ODRA computer employing a so-called STOP program
to determine various characteristics of variation.
In 1976 and 1977 amino acids in seeds of 50 forms were analyzed (Beckmann
Protein content (%) in seeds differed markedly. It was highest in
P. sativum conv. speciosum, decreasing in conv. sativum, medullosacharatum,
and in primitive species. The richest source of high protein lines was
in conv. medullosacharatum (27.8-32.7%). All common and high yielding
varieties of field pea belonging to conv. sativum, var. episcopii and gratio-
sum were characterized by a low protein content (21.1-23.2%). In the group
of colored peas (conv. speciosum), there were varieties with a very low
protein content as well as botanical varieties with a high protein content
(e.g. violaceo-punctatum, urgeum, and zeylanicum).
Populations and varieties responded markedly to changing environmental
conditions within years. The colored peas showed the lowest fluctuation
of protein within years. Variation of protein content in the analyzed lines
ranged from 0.25-5.30% within years. The degree of uniformity of the tested
lines also varied appreciably. The best, uniformity was manifested by popula-
tion No. 16 of P. abyssinicum, by the garden pea 'Old Perfection', and by
the fodder pea 'Romac'. Evaluation of all variation components showed
varieties 'Super Sweet' and Old Perfection and fodder peas 'Poneka' and
'Kosieczynska' should receive preference in crossing programs.
The mean amino acid content in 1967 and 1977 varied as follows: lysine
- 6.64-8.05; methionine - 0.79-1.31; cystine - 0.81-1.34.
Cultivated forms had a somewhat higher level of amino acids in the
seed protein than primitive forms. However, no negative correlation was
observed between the composition of amino acids and the seed yield. A number
of white flowering pea varieties ('Jupiter1, 'F1avanda' , 'Rondo', 'Kaliski'
and 'Waitor'), characteristic of very high seed yields, had a very favorable
composition of amino acids in protein.