"RUSSIAN ODONATOLOGICAL FRAGMENTS"
Miscelaeous fragments of Russian odonatological literature translated by O. Kosterin into English
Back to the front page
Back to the Odonata page
On various occasions, foreign colleagues asked me to translate
this or that section from some Russian odonatological works, first of all by
Belyshev. With time, quite a lot of such have been accumulated. I decided to
put them here to be available to anyone interested. The fragments are
arranged on a taxonomical base, where possible. The referces are given which should be sought
for in the united list at the end of this page. My own notes are given in
square brackets "" and preceded with "O. K.". Please, use context search
untill I learn how to use some more advanced tags. I tried to retain the
style of the originals, as far as it is possible in a badly known to be foreign
language; in most cases I found an excessive verbosity in Russian authors and
would personally formulate the matter much more concise wthout loss of the
content. However, I decided to reflect the authors' own mode of scientific
writing. I am sorry for the fragments being rather chaotically chosen, but I
cannot afford myself to start a systematic translation of Russian odonatological
Calopteryx Belyshev et al., 1989. Species recorded in the Cenral Asian Republics of the USSR and Kazakhstan south of the line Lake Aral - northern bank-Lake Balkhash - Lake Alakul. " Systematics is very confusing. Different authors variously consider the taxonomic status of the forms of the splendens group. Until the problem were solved eventually we retain a species rank for the majority of Central Asian forms. Species attribution of the specimens in our disposal from the surroundings of Parkhar in the south-western Tadjikistan is still unclear. Perhaps, they belong to a new species. C. virgo reported by V. N. Krylova (1969) for Kirghizia. A. N. Popova (1951) in her list of the dragonflies of Central Asia [within the USSR] reported it for the southern Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan. Probably, the species penetrates a little into the northern regions of the area considered. A. N. Bartenev (1929b) attributed a femape from Semirechye to the nominative subspecies. C. maracandica - sporadically in Tadjikistan and the southern regions of Uzbekistan and Kirghizia, up to the altitude of 1300-1500 m. C. splendens - soradically all over the region. C. intermedia - found in the surroundings of Bekabad in Uzbekistan, where flies together with splendens C. orientalis - along southern Caspian coast from Lenkoran (Transcaucasia) to Krasnovodsk. C. transcaspica - described from Geok-Tepe in the southern Turkmenistan, reported for Ashkhabad (Bartenev, 1912a; Pavlyuk, Kurbanova, 1985) [both sites close to each other, on the Kopet-Dagh Mts.]. Larva unknown. C. unicolor - described from Novyy Margelan. By collections of R. N. Meklenburtsev (the collection of the Biological Institute SO AN SSSR), recorded for Tashkent. Larva unknown." Belyshev, 1973: Lestes macrostigma "In the larval phase inhabits very diverse stagnant water bodies: lakes and bogs, but mostly prefers small ones with rush [O.K.: Belyshev used the Russian word 'kamysh' which is an official name of Scirpus but colloquially is much more often applied to Typha; I hope Belyshev wrote as a scientist] thickets. The species was found also on large lakes, but only at places with rush. Tolerates polluted and mineralised water. Apparently does not avoid temporary waters, at which is present en messe during absence of water. This damselfly is indifferent to the ground vegetation and quite tolerates its absence at steppen lakes [O.K.: it is clear that here Belyshev obviously implied arboreal vegetation, but his wording is strange in Russian also]. Absolutely does not ascend to the mountains. ... Copulation lasts for very long time and often the damselflies remain in copuli overnight. Emergency most probably occurs in thickets of sedge [O.K.: here Belyshev wrote 'osoka' which cannot be anything than Carex], less frequently Alysma ['chastukha'], rush ['kamysh'] or reed ['trostnik', unmistakable] and almost always above the water, where the larvae ascend the stems not above 20 cm" Coenagrion Belyshev et al., 1989: Species recorded in the Cenral Asian Republics of the USSR and Kazakhstan south of the line Lake Arale - northern bank-Lake Balkhash - Lake Alakul. "C. armatum. Reported for Kirghizia by Krylova (1969), probably, an isolated locality. Subspecies attribution is not known. C. hastulatum: reported by A.N. Popova (1951) for South Kazakhstan, probably - it is there at the southern border. C. pulchellum asiaticum is distributed sporadically. Found in Tadjikistan (Dushanbe environs and Khovaling), Uzbekistan (Samarkand and Krasnogvardeisa environs, the district "The Gate of Timurlen", Kirghizia (Sary-Chelek nature reservation), reported for the western ending of the Ghissar Mt. Range (Belyshev, 1958). Kirghizia (Krylova, 1969), South Kazakhstan (Popova, 1951). In the south this species is pertained to the piedmonts and mountains. Probably, more common in the north of the region. It is one of the most abundant species at Lake Zaisan, close to the region considered (Belyshev, 1961). C. puella. Reported for South Kazakhstan (Popova, 1951), Kirghizia (Krylova, 1969), SE Kazakhstan (Belyshev, 1961). Subspecies attribution is not known. Belyshev mentionned differences of the male from Alma-Ata from typical ones. C. syriacum. Reported by A.N. Bartenev (1916) fro Gorganin North Iran, so, the authors expect it to be found in S. Turkmenia. S. ornatum. Found by the authors in SW Kopet-Dagh (no locality given in the referred book) C. vernale. Reported by A.N.Popova (1951) for Southern Kazakhstan C. scitulum. In Tadjikistan sporadically inhabit mountains at altitudes of 1300-2300 m. Reported by Kirghizia for valeys and piedmonts (Krylova, 1972), for N. Iran (Bartenef, 1916)."Coenagrion armatum
Cercion v-nigrum Malikova, 1995 "Cercion v-nigrum Selys, a larva Measurements: the body length: 15.5-16.0 mm the wing case length 4.5 mm the head width 3.2 mm the length of gill plates 6.0=6.5 mm The larvae are brown or greenish, of an intermediate size. The head is pentagonal, the eyes are large, prominent. The conves angles of the occiput are set with short spines. There is a dark spot on the head top, margined by an uneven line going from the lower angles of the eyes. There are light spots on the places correspopnding to the ocelli of imago, and two light stripes going from the antenna bases to the central ocellus. The antennae are 7-articled; the articles 1-2 are robust, the articles 3-7 are thin, the 3rd one being the longest, the others shortening to the apex. The articles 1-2 are mostly dark, 3-4 dark in the basal part, 5-7 light. The labium is typical for Coenagrionidae, extends behind to the bases of the second pair of legs. The mentum length is 2.4- 2.5 mm, its maximum width being 1.7 mm. There are 4 mental setae (rarely 5) on each side of the mentum. There are 2 conpicuous spines at the point of attachment of the palpi and 3-4 spines on the outer edge of the distal part of the mentum. The fore side of the median lobe of the mentum is protruding as a blunt angle and is finely dentate. The palpi are narrower at the bases and broading to the distal margin, which bears several fine teeth, three of which are distinct while others fuse each other. The endhook is robust, beak-shaped, separated from the teeth of the palpus distal margin by a deep incision. The movable hook is large and acute. Each palpus bears 6 lateral setae. The legs are light with a darker pattern. The femora are tetraquetrous, with three dark transversal bands. The tibiae are ling, triquetrous, with a dark band at the base, they bear a row of long light-coloured hairs on the outer edge. There are bunches of dense setae beneath the apices of the tibiae and on the tarsi. Tha abdomen is cylindrical, slightly tapering to the apex, its dorsal side is dark and covered with tiny spinules. The lateral edges of the tergites 1-9 are light with a distinct dark spot situated a bit distally of a tergite centre, the spots on the tergites 1 and 9 being less conspicuous. The tergite 10 is entirely dark. The lateral edges of the tergites 1-9 bear a lengthwise row of acute spinules, which terminates with 1-2 rather large lateral spines. A row of acute spinules goes along the distal edge of each of the tergites 4-10. In females the ovipositor does not rich a bit the apex of the 1oth segment of the abdomen. The cerci are short and conical in shape. The gill plates are lancet-shaped, pointed apically, translucid excepto for three duffuse dark spots in the distal part of the plate and a dark stripe along the main trachaeal stem. The latter and its main branches are brown. The terminal branches of the trachaea are black, cluster-like, well seen. The the nodule seam is very uneven, hardly noticeable on the ventral side of the plate. The dorsal and ventral nodules are situated at different distance from the gill base: on the central gill the dorsal one is slightly more apart than the ventral one, on the lateral gills the situation is opposite. The edges of the basal halves of the plates bear short spines, the distal halves are margined with fine light hairs, which are shorter on the ventral side." Erythromma najas Malikova, 1995: " Erythromma humerale Selys, a larva Measurements: the body length 16.0-18.5 mm the wing case length 4.5 mm the head width 3.6 mm The larvae are brownish- or greenish-grey, of an intermediate size. The antennae are 6-articled, the articles 1-3 are dark, the article 4 is light distally, the articles 5-6 are light. The labium is typical for Coenagrionidae, the mentum length is 2.3-2.6 mm, its maximum width being 2.1 mm. There are usually three mental setae on each side of the mentum, rarely 2 or 4 (in E. najas usually 4, less frequently 3 or 5). There are 5-6 small and acute spines on the distal halves of the mentum lateral egdes, 2-3 such slines are situated at the point of attachment of the palpi. The medial lobe of the mentum is protruding, triangular, slightly rounded apically, its edges being finely dentated. Each palpus bears 5-6 lateral setae. The legs are lightly coloured, the femora of all the legs have dark rings in their distal third, sometimes dark rings are present at the femur base. Tha abdomen is cylindrical, slightly tapering to the end, its dorsal side is dark and covered with tiny spinules. The lateral edges of the tergites 2-9 are light, flattened, and bear a lengthwise row of acute spinules ending with 2-3 rather large lateral spines. A row of acute spinules presents also along the distal edge of each tergite, except for the 1st one. The cerca are short and conical in shape. The gill plates are elongate, rounded or bluntly pointed apically. The nodules and the nodule seam are distinct, well expressed. The dorsal and ventral nodules are situated at different distance from the gill base: on the middle gill the dorsal one is slightly more apart than the ventral one, on the lateral gills the situation is opposite. The nodule seam is uneven. There are 1-3 diffuse dark spots in the distal parts of the gill plates. The terminal branches of the trachea are dark-brown or black, cluster-like, well seen. The differences from E. najas: 1. There are 3 (rarely 2 or 4) mental setae as different from 4 (rarely 3 or 5) in E. najas. 2. The gill plates are not widening to the apex, they are elongate- lancete shaped, their maximal width does not exceed 2.0 mm, the widest point is situated slightly distally from the nodule seam, while in E. najas the plate is usually noticeably widening to the apex. The apex is slightly pointed, not widely-rounded as in E. najas. 3. The dark points in the distal half of the gill plates are less expressed than in E. najas, they never look like transversal fasciae and are usually lighter than in E. najas." Nehalennia speciosa Malikova, 1995: "Occurs sporadically in the southern Far East. Ecological information: Imaginal flight was observed by as since 10.06 to 28.08. The larvae live in stagnant water bodies, mostly with clear water and sedge thickets, often in oxbows. Material: 67 males, 53 females. Amur Province: Blagoveshchensk District, Sadovoe village Khabarovskii Krai: Khabarovsk, Komsomol'skii Zapovednik, Pivan' settlement; the Khor River at the Bol'shaya arm Primorskii Krai: Khasan District, Khasan settlement at the Vulunda Bay, the Barabashevka River; Ussuriisk District, Gornotaezhnaya station; Ussuriiskii zapovednik; Furugelm Island, Putyatin Island." Enallagma Belyshev, 1956: "39. Enallagma circulatum continentalis Belyshev subsp. nova 1 male, 25.VII-42; 2 males, 29.VII-41 - Ochot Sea coast, the Tugur River at mouth. Finding on the continent of this Japanese species is interesting, especially when we face it on the Ochot coast. At least for the SSSR fauna this species is reported for the first time. There is no doubt in belonging our specimens to En. circulatum Selys, since the presence of a black stripe on segment sizes, separating yellow-rimmed ventral seam from the blue-coloured upper part of a tergite - is a distinct and clear-cut character. Besides, entirely black tibiae without any traces of yellow well distinguish En. circulatum Selys from a close species En. cyathigerum Charp. However, our specimens have a number of characters distinctly differing them from Japanese ones as well. First, the transversal spot on tergite II is fused, as in En. cyathigerum, with the tergite hind margin with a lengthwise streak, as in En. cyathigerum Charp.; second, our specimens are smaller: abdomen being 25.5-27.5 mm in lrngth, hind wing 20.0-20.5 mm in length. So distinct differences of our specimens from the typical from Japan allow to isolate them into a peculiar geographical form Enallagma circulatum continentalis Belyshev subsp. nova (Ochot coast, the Tugur River, 25.VII, 29.VIII 1942, 3 males) (the type and paratypes, A.G. Kuznetsov). The type is preserved in the collection of Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR)." [O. K. I have no idea why Belyshev enumerated the materials twice (and made discrepancy with the year of 29th July.] Bartenev, 1956: "29. Agrion antiquum sp. n. (VIII - 3, 4; IX-1, 2) Nizhne-Amurskaya Province, Chumikanskii District, the village Tugur, 31.VII.36, 1 male 2 females, A. Kuznetsov. The species belongs to the gropup of Agrion concinnum and Agrion hylas, but differs from them by a number of characters and, in particular, the structure of male anal characters. A male. The head is so broken that it is impossible to trace its colouration. There is a light streak along the fore margin of the prothorax, but the very margin is black. A light streak along the very lateral margin ... [Russian text puzzling, probably a block of words missing] a bow-like spot (but inner margin of the spot is not bow-like curved but bent almost at right angle) on either side at hind outer corner of the prothorax. The hind margin of the prothorax with a narrow light streak; there is a couple of blue dot on either side (equally distant from the hind margin and the lateral bow-like light spot). The hind margin of prothorax evenly rounded, without even a slight trace of differentiation into lobes, incisions, etc. Behind the hind margin there is no any formations, lobes or processes as well. Antehumeral blue streaks of the pterothorax are very wide (their width almost equals that of the central [black] stripe), not tapering to their hind end. Humeral black stripe is widened at its fore end forming a large black projection; on the first lateral seam there is only a hardly noticeable trace of a black stripe and ahardly noticeable dot or trace behind it. The second black lateral stripe is contiguous, wider in the upper and lower one third and narrower in the central one third (in the middle). The legs are entirely black (in A. hylas they has light patches). The ventral side of the thorax is broken, its colouration unclear. The first tergite of the abdomen (VIII-3) with a black spot in the fore half (in A. hylas in the fore one third), tapering to behind and continues by sides as a narrow black streak which widens beneath and continues as a wide black stripe to the fore lower corner of the tergite, then this stripe continues aling the lower margin of the tergite and at its hind corner turns upwards (only upwards but not upwards and forward) along the hind margin and ends abruptly (not smoothly) approximately et the middle of the tergite height. The second tergite (VIII-4) has a non-paired black spot in the hind 2/3 of the tergite length; this spot is tapering behind and fused with a wide black stripe going along the hind margin of the tergite, at its sides the spot continues as a tapering and rounded at tip narrow streak, which ends a bit above the middle of the tergite heigth; on its front the spot is not pointed but rather blunt. On the tergite sides there is a wide black stripe reaching the lower margin of the tergite, this side reaches the hind and does not reach the fore margin of the tergite. The upper margin of the stripe is uneven, just behind the middle of tergite this stripe produces a large rounded projection upwards, which almost reaches to the level of the lower end of the lateral part of the middle unpaired spot of the tergite but is situated in front of this spot; further forward the upper margin of the stripe goes somewhat below the middle of the tergite height; the front part of the stripe is narrower, its upper margin goes not higher than the lower one third of the tergite. .." [and this fairly long description continues... Malikova, 1995: The key for species of Enallagma " 1(2) The metinfraepistern is not margined with black, the upper part of the 2nd lateral suture of pterotorax has a black spot or short stripe; there are no black stripes aling the ventral suture of the abdomen, rarely very short stripes or their traces present. 23-28, h.w. 18-22.... ..................................E. cyathigerum Charp., 1840 2(1) The metinfraepistern is margined with black, the 2nd lateral suture of pterotorax has a contiguous black stripe; there are usually black stripes aling the ventral suture of the abdomen 3(4) The black margins of metinfraepistern, stripes on 2nd thoracal suture and along abdominal ventral suture are bright and wide, 26-30, h.w. 21-23... .................E. circulatum Selys, 1883 4(3) The black margins of metinfraepistern, stripes on 2nd thoracal suture are narrow, those along abdominal ventral suture gradually reduce to the abdomen apex or wanting. 5(6) The black stripes along the ventral suture usually present, the black spot on the abdominal tergite II is mushroom-shaped, not pointed, tergite VIII above without black marking, 26-30, h.w. 22-24.. ..........................................E. antiquum Bart., 1956 6(5) The black stripes along the ventral suture usually absent, the black spot on the abdominal tergite II is arrow-shaped, pointed, tergite VIII above with two black spots or dots, 26-29, h.w. 21-23.....................................E. belyshevi Haritonov, 1977" And a section from the systematical part: " Genus Enallagma Selys, 1876 25. E. antiquum (Bartenef, 1956) Bartenev, 1956:221-225 (Agrion); Belyshev, 1956:198 (circula- tum continentalis ssp.n.); Haritonov, 1975:16-17 (nigrolineatum Bel. et Harit., sp.n.). Range: north Siberia from the Ob to Kamchatka, the Ochot Sea coast, Amurland, Korea [Haritonov, 1975; Asahina, 1989b]. Systematic notes: In the original description the species was errtoneously attributed by A. N. Barrenev to the genus Coenagrion, to the group C. concinnum and C. hylas, that hindered clarification of its true taxonomical statis, moreover the type specimens were lost. In 1973 B.F. Belyshev [1973a] described from the Transpolar Siberia a colour aberration E. cyathigerum: E. c. ab. nigrolineata, and, in 1974 attributed to it "Agrion antiquum Bart." [Belyshev, Haritonov, 1974]. A. Y. Haritonov, having studied a number of specimens from NE Siberia came to a conclusion that their differences from the typical can not be considered as aberration deviations and have described them as a species E. nigrolineatum Belyshev et Haritonov [Haritonov, 1975]. Evidently, in this case a name suggested by A. N. Bartenev acquires a priority. A great variation of the black stripes along ventral seams of tergites of the abdomen must be mentioned. In specimens from the Amur Province the stripes practically absent. These specimens can be distinguished from E. cyathigerum only by the structure of the anal appendages of the males (differences of the females being unclear). S. Asakhina mentioned for Korea E. cyathigerum subsp. and gave a drawing of the male anal appendages which allow identify his specimens as E. antiquum [Asahina, 1989b]. Probably, the species inhabits also the Primorskii Kray and other parts of the Amurland, but still is not found. Ecology. In Kamchatka the imagines fly from 1.07 to 30.08. The larvae inhabit stagnant water bodies. The ecological peculiarities on the southern Far East are not clear, only an earlier start of the fligh period of imagi should be mentioned (on 17.06 a mature specimen was met with in Blagoveshchensk surroundings. Amur Province: Blagoveshchensk District, village Verkhne-Blagoveshchenskoe; settlement Belogorye; Khabarovskii Krai ProvinceL Tuguro-Chumikanskii DIstrict, the Tugur River; Kamchatka: the Kichiga River floodland; Ust-Kamchatskii District, collective farm Mikhailovskii; surroundings of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii. 28. E. cyathigerum Charp., 1840 Hagen, 1856б:366 (Agrion); Sjostedt, 1927:4-5; Belyshev, 1956:198; Belyshev, 1964:58; Belyshev, Kurentzov 1964:79. North America [Belyshev, 1973б; Tsuda, 1986]. B. F. Belyshev reported this species for the Sikhote-ALin' Nature Reserve  and Amurland [Belyshev, Kurentzov, 1964]. All other findings of E. cyathigerum in the Far East were made in Kamchatka. Since this species is extremely close to E. antiquum, it is hard to judge whether the earlier authors dealt indeed with E. cyathigerum or E. antiquum. Our report [Маликова, 1993] for the Blagoveshchensk environs in fact refer to E. antiquum Bart. To the same species belong all the specimens from Kamchatka which are present in the collection of Zoological Museum of Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals. The Far Eastern part of the range of E. cyathigerum remains not cleared. The only specimen undoubtedly belonging to this species was captured in Komsomol'sk-na Amure. For further studied we retain for E. cyathigerum indication in Kamchatka, but quite probable is that it is absent from there but present only in the southern Far East. [O. K.: The key gives the differences in colouration while the text said that only male appendage allow to distinguish antiquum and cyathigerum, the differences not being clarified. But Dr. Malikova have cleared her opinion with respect to this species in a letter, in reply to my question. The main characteristic feature of E. antiquum she thought was stretched out and pointed apices of the upper appendages (as viewed laterally or in 3/4). But she still has doubts since, "judging to the figures Gloyd and other Americans, the American E. cyathigerum are closer to E. antiquum, but they do not isolate them even into a separate subspecies".] Ischnura aralensis Haritonov, 1988: " Females are polymorphic not only in colouration but also in some structural characters. Homeochromic females with "male" lobes on the lamella mesostigmalis. Identical to males in colouration and the structure of high semicircular lobes on lamella mesostigmalis. Homeochromic females without "male" lobes. The holotype belongs to this form. Colse to males in colouration, but black spots on II and VIII tergits are very variable: from absent to wide and extending throughout the entire tergirte length. Heterochromic females: Black ornament very reduced, especially on the thorax. Humeral and praehumeral stripes are absent. Medial stripe on pterothorax lacks integrity and reduced to two or more shortt isolated strokes. Sometimes thorax, legs, and two first abdominal tergites lacks black marking. The general colour is variable: beige, greyish, orange. Old females turn to brown to mask the real colouration. The spine on the VIII sternite is massive and sharp." The list of materials includes 9 females and 10 males from Kzyl-Orda, Taldy-Kurgan, Dzhambul and Chelyabinsk regions. [O. K.: Prof. A. Y. Haritonov communicated that conspecificity of all these specimens is proved by his direct observation of mating of both female types with the uniform males.] Anax junius Belyshev (1973): "Anax junius Drury, 1773 (fig. 142)
Systematic notes. The species is unknown to us in Nature, as it is attributed to our fauna only by old data by Hagen (1856), which were later replied by Selys Longchamps et McLachlan (1872). This situation does not allow to judge about morphological peculiaritis of our specimens [sic, although the author meant individuals, not specimens] of this American species.
Range. An. junius Drury is a typical American species but spread quite far over islands of the Pacific and penetrating into Asia, where is known from Kamchatka and north-east of China.
Data to species' history. Occurence of species in Asia by separate spots, isolated both from each other and the American range part, is extremely interesting and at the same time shed light to the history of formation of its modern range.
Our special studies (Belyshev, 1966a) [which were just speculations] revealed a double settling of Asia by this species:
1) The northern one, e. g. through Alasca and, most probably the Aleut Islands, although hitherto one cannot deny compoletely a possibility of its arriving to us through the Chukot peninsula, but this could happen only in the case if the spreading took place during the xerothermic period
2) The southern one, e. g. through the Hawaii Islands and further through the Marschall and Karoline archipelagoes.
So, in the eastern Asia there appears a natural disjunction between the northern and southern parts of the Asian range, which always brings about disappointment in those who does not now the history of the species' spreading.
However there is no firm confidence that the species is indeed present in Kamchatka. If it is absent from Kamchatka, then its penetration to Asia went only through the islands of the Pacific Ocean"
1) In the below translation I tried to be as close to the original text as possible and to retain the excess verbosity which, to my mind, it is characterized by (in fact, its positive content is very concise).
2) The xerocopy available does not show either the very beginnigs or ends of lines as hidden in a somewhat folded volume, where the words were not reconstructable I put "???".]
ABOUT THE HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN OF THE CHINESE AND KAMCHATIAN DISJUNCTIVE RANGES OF THE AMERICAN WATCHER - ANAX JUNIUS DRURY (ODONATA, INSECTA)
[O. K.: In this paper, a Russian name "amerikanskii dozorshchik" is sometimes used. It translates as "The American Watcher", and "the watcher" is just a translation of a Greek word "Anax" (as most of Russian names are translations of the Latin ones), and the Russian word used is not colloquial. It looks very archaic and of a too high register and, although quite understandable, I suspect it was not existed at all before invented for this translation, to reflect the odour of ancience, as it was done, for instance, for translations of Homer. The epithet "American" was most probably invented by Belyshev himself for this species. In Russia, "official" Russian names are invented from time to time, but they mostly are just translations, vary from author to author and are not used by anybody but in official Red Lists. Entomologists use only Latin names, while plain people have vernacular names for very few creatures and these names vary greatly from place to place, and the common situation is that the same set of names is applied for different creatures in different areas. In Omsk, where I was a child, we called all Aeshnids (that is only Aeshna spp.) "ataman", a word (of probably a Turcic origin) meaning a chieftain of a rober band or of a kazak troop (in the latter case it was an official military rank in theRussian Empire)]
In accordance to the works by V. L. Bianchi (1905), E. M. Walker (1958), F. C. Whitehouse (1984), I. G. Needham (1930) and others, the recent range of Anax junius Drury can be drawn as follow. Its main part occupies the south of North America from the latitude of ??? in the north to the latitude of Panama in the south, including West-India and the Bermuda islands. Besides, there are separate isolated parts of the range: on the Hawaii, on Taiti island in the southern Pacific, in China and Kamchatka (see the figure). Such an intriguing distribution of the species along the Pacific coast for the fauna of dragonflies is for the first time recognized and shows complicated double migrations of representatives of the American fauna into Asia.
The disjunctive range on Taiti is omited here, the main attention we pay to the Asian parts of the range which give certain indications for the history of the species dispersal and state in favour of existence of a southern equatorial migrational pathway between Asia and America which hitherto was not recognized by odonatologists. There is no American Watcher in the Kurile Islands (Asahina, 1958; Okumura, 1941, 1942); it is absent, according to the data by Selys Longchamps (1983) and Asahina (1938, 1956, 1956a), from Japan. We can also claim that the species is absent from the Himalaya and Indochina, since it was not reported for Burma by F. G. Fraeser (1936) and for Thailand by Asahina (1961). The absence of the species in Soviet Primorye is corroborated by the works by A. N. Bartenev (1914; 1956 and others) and B. F. Belyshev (1956; 1958; 1963)/
Turning to the Chinese range, we should note that in the times of Bianchi (1905) who summarized all the knwledge on the odonatofauna of Palaearctic, the species was known only from the lands around the ??? Bay of the Yellow Sea, but recently Needham (1930) reports it for the northern, eastern and central parts of China, its abnsence in Taiwan and Southern China being stressed, that is very important for us as evidencing at a very restricted territory occupied by the Chinese range.
Starting a historical analysis we have first of all to decide how to consider the Asian parts of the range: either as a remnant of a wider contiguous range of the species in the past or as recently and independently arisen from the common centre - the American range. We keep to the latter point of view.
Indeed, if to assume that the wide Asian range arose in the Tertiary, then in Kamchatka the species would disappear in the glacial time but would retain, besides China, also in Japan and, probably, in the Ussuri area, that is not the case. Besides, against the ancient arising of the wide primary Asian area stands the narrow locality of the species there in the recent times along with a wide distribution of the species in America, where during the glaciation it was forced far to the south and in the recent times started to spread to the north again. We cannot suppose also occurrence of two migrations through the southern part of the Pacific, that is one praeglacial, from which the Chinese part of the range retained, and another already post-glacial wave taken part in one of the xerothermic periods. ??? species in America ranged north of the modern for ??? has produced the Kamchatian part of the range.
At last, we cannot suppose the origin of the Kamchatian part from the Chinese one by analogy with other southern species the range of which forms a strong projection to the north along the coast of East Asia. Thus, such a southern species as Pantala flavescens Fabr., being found in Kamchatka, retains connection with the southern part of the range and lives in all the countries between China and Kamchatka, that is found in Japan and Amurland.
Having decided an independant origin of both Asian isolated range we have to deal with the history of both of these ranges.
1. Kamchatian range. Earlier (Belyshev, 1962, 1963) it was stated that two American species occurred in Kamchatka in the Quaternary in one of the xertothermic periods, more or less coinciding with the last sea regression. One of the species mentioned in these works was Anax junius Drury. If this species would penetrate into Kamchatka in the Tetriary, then it, as a southern species, would disappear under the influence of the first glaciation while having penetrated there in an interglacial time would disappear during the second glaciation. So far there is still no ground to believe that the species could retain in Kamchatka as a relic, for instance, on hot springs, that is known for Orthetrum albistylum in the Baikal area (Belyshev, 1960), since in Kamchatka all the preglacial fauna has disappeared, including all species of the northern section of the fauna. Earlier we (Belyshev, 1963) supposed that such a relic of the interglacial time could be Agrion armatum Charp. But now, with the finding of this species at Yakutsk, this "relic" disappears as well. The American Watcher could not get to Asia after the last sea regression as well, since at that time the northern limirt of the species distribution should already have withdrawn to the south up to the modern limits; the flight along the Aleut islands over the cold waters of the Bering Sea is also excluded, since cooled insects would gradually weaken and, diminishing the flight rate, would have got into the water. It seems that it is this reason which comprises the main obstacle for modern movement of the fauna not only along the Aleut Archipelago but also along the Kurile Archipelago.
1) All these speculations about "the Kamchatian [part of the] range" resulted from two specimens reported by Hagen (1856) and Bartenef (1911), respectively; of which the former most probably was mislabelled and originated from Alaska (and delivered through the Russian-American Company), as it was proved for some other American dragonfly species reported for NE Asia in the same work. There were no other records for a century. The modern Kamchatian climate makes impossible a more or less permanent existance of Anax junius there
2) It seems that Belyshev's notion about the so-called xerothermic period taking place in the Holocene, when the climate in high latitudes was warmer than presently while the sea level underwent a regression (to open a land bridge along the Aleutes), is something extravagant (maybe this was a point of view of the cited Lindberg, 1956) which did not withstand time and criticism. This notion seemed to imply that theclimat got warmer and drier while huge amount of water were still accumulated in glaciers]
2. Chinese range. Above we determine the size and age of the Chinese part of the range. Now we still have to decide concerning the ways of its origin, that is to reveal its connection to the main range which is in America.
It is completely obvious that in the time of possible migration of the dragonflies to the central part of the Pacific there were no land bridges there, and Anax junius Drury flew though the ocean along the line California - the Hawaii islands - the Marschall islands - the Mariann islands - China. On the Hawaii, an isolated part of the range is known, there is no data for other islands. It is extraordinarily indicative that the species is absent not only from the islands of the Zond Archipelago but is unknown also for the Philippine islands. It is impossible to suppose existance of regular flights of dragonflies along the line specified. We should consider that Anax junius Drury inhabited the Hawaii islands and further crossed the Ocean as a "wandering species" (Puzanov, 1938, page 337) and, of course, not owing to its powerful flight but as carried by storms, that follows from bringing together the following factors. The dragonflies fly, according to Gladkov (1948, p. 51), with a normal flight about 30 km/hr. Hence, a flight from California to the Hawaii islands would take more than 100 hrs, that is above 4 days and nighs. Such a work is of course too hard for an insect. But if to consider that the flight was carried out passively, by means of the hurricane wind which can reach ??? km/hr, then from California to the Hawaii islands a dragonfly having a perfect hoaring flight would be in the air as little as ??? hrs. This possibility is supported by, for instance, a report by a well known naturalist Burmeister (cited after K. Kornelius, 1866, page ???), which saw an Aeshna sp. calmly flying over the sea at 350 km (in the book 50 miles were reported, which we consider as the geographic ones) from the islands of Green Cape. To keep for a while at ???, the dragonfly has flew away. Thus, it would have taken an uninterrupted way of 700 km, that is to be in the state of an active flying for 25-30 hours.
Importance of wind in the flight of dragonflies over the Pacific ocean is in a direct relation from their mentioned absence southerly of the presumed line of migration. The line deliniated by us coincides with the line of the passate winds of the Northern Hemisphaere. Southerly, there is a line of stills or the passate winds of opposite directions. Obviously, this is the reason of absence of the species, for instance, on the Zond islands. In California, in summer the winds out of the land predominate which could easily carry the dragonflies being in the air into the open sea, into the power of passates.
Thus, an interesting way of a probable occupation of Asia by American dragonfly species is being revealed. It is quite obvious that the insect crossings in the opposite direction is possile only in the Southern Hemisphere.
It should be once again stressed that the revealed way of migration is not permanent but should be considered as an occasional carrying by the wind by flocks of apparently young dragonflies. And this took place not less than by two steps: America - the Hawaii islands and the Hawaii islands - Asia, But it is more likely that between the Hawaii islands and China there were one more intermediate stop which should be reconstructed on those lands which arose in the places of the modern archipelagoes during sea regressions when the coast line was shifted at least up to the Aleut and Kurile archipelagoes, Japan, the Ryu-Kyu Archipelago (Lindberg, 1956).
When speaking about importance of wind in dragonfly distribution, one should ??? the opinion of such a great authority as G. H. Kennedy (1929) about occupation by the species in question of the Hawaii islands by wind. This author considers that this took place not ealier than 2,000 years ago, that is not earlier than appearance of rice fields on these islands, an inhabitant of which the Watcher is presently, that well corresponds with our indication of a recent invasion of the species into Asia.
Aeshna crenata and A. nigroflava Belevicn, 2005: 11 "Aeshna crenata Hagen, 1856 Rsults are presented of the study of the life cycle of dragonflies of this species, with indication of parametres of each age stage of a larva and changes in the abdomen coloration in the process of their growth. Variation of systematically important characters of imago is analysed: the shape of the anal appendages, of the genital apparates, the coloration of the thorax and wings. Earlier, two subspecies were described for Ae. crenata - the western light-winged Ae. crenata and the eastern dark-winged Ae. c. wnukovskii. As a result of investigatin of the wing coloration throughout the range we noticed decrease of the area of the dark colour in the eastern direction, that is a situation which is diametrally opposite to that which was a basis of describing subspecies. Taking into account a strong variability of this colourational character in general, we consider that isolation of continental subspecies is not justified. Aeshna nigroflava Martin, 1908 As the a result of the study of morphological characters it was stated that the species analysed is most close to Ae. crenata. For confirmation of similarity of Ae. nigroflava and Ae. crenata, study of the male genitalia of these species was carried out, as a result of which it their complete identity was stated. The characters separating Ae. nigoflava from A. crenata is the larger T-like spot and the shape of the male anal appendages (viewed from above). On the basis of these peculiarities we consider Ae. nigroflava an island subspecies of A. crenata." Gomphus davidi Belyshev et al., 1989: "G. davidi reported by A.N. Popova (1951) for Turkmenia without exact locality. Probably, this datum was adopted by her from the unpublished manuscript by Bartenef. One female specimen of G. davidi from the Ashkhabad environs is kept in the museum of Zoological Institude of USSR Acad. Sci." Lindenia inkiti Belyshev et al., 1989: "... rises doubts in its reality as a species" Ketenchiev, Haritonov, 1998: p. 37. "L. tetraphylla - L[indeniya cetyrekhlistnaya.) From the territory of the Pitsundian Nature Reserve the species L. inkiti was described by A. N. Bartenev in 1929, but its status is discutable and most of the systematics consider it as a synonym of L. tetraphylla. " Ketenchiev, Haritonov, 1999: p. 18-20. "A, N, Bartenev (1930 b) [O. K.: I'm afraid this is the notorious Russian version of his German paper published in 1929, where the species was actually first described] by 5 males from the environs of Pitsunda and from Lake Inkit described the species Lindenia inkiti. So far this species remains the most enigmatic taxon of dragonflies reported for the Caucasus. Basing on Bartenev's description, many authors report this species for the Caucasian fauna (Belyshev, Haritonov, 1983 a-v; Dumont, 1991 and others), however nobody managed to found this species next time. Special search of this species on the type locality, Lake Inkit, were arranged by the Biological Society of DDR (Beutler, 1989), and also repeatedly by us, but n representatives of the genus were found neither on this lake nor in its surroundings. Some circumstances in the first description by A. N. Bartenev allow to doubt in reality of existence of this species. First, the genus was described only by males, no female was found. Second, practically all characters of the newly described species concern coloration and reflect L. inkiti being darker than L. tetraphylla. Third, A. N. Bartenev himself stressed that the degree of melanization of specimens in his series was varying. The only structural character noted by the author of the description is as follows: "The lobes opf the lower anal appendage (Fig. 4) are more widely set than in Lind. tetraphylla ..." (p. 51). However, our examination of long series from Central Asia and specimens from the North Caucasus revealed a sufficiently strong variation of this character and its irrelevance as a diagnostic one. Besides, colorationh of Caucasian specimens is in general darker than of the Central Asian ones and this may be manifestartion of geographical or modificative variation. One should pay attention also to the note by A. N. Bartenev that "the thorax bottom and partly its sides may have traces of a dark-blue bloom (as in old specimens of Lestes dryas etc)", that is darkening of coloration may appear a consequence of a widely distributed among many species of dragonflies phenomenon of appearing of a bloom on the body witg ageing, interfering with the true coloration of an insect [O. K.: but the pattern is should not change!] Lastly, suspicious is the fact that simultaneously with the dark colored representatives of the genus Lindenia, A. N. Bartenev observed and described from Lake Inkiti [O. K.: an error, I'm afraid, should be Inkit] dark-coloured individuals of Orthetrum sabina, which were described by him in the same paper as O. sabina var. nigripes Cns var. n. Existence of dark-coloured individials of representatives of another family increases probability of the hypothesis about modoficational nature of melanization of dragonflies frok Lake Inkiti [sic]. As a consequence of the above discussed reasons we consider as extremely dubious a possibility of eistence of L. inkiti as an independent species, but until appearance of doubtless facts [O. K.: what they could be?] denaying its existence, we retain L. inkiti in the checklist of the Mediterranian odonatofauna" [O. K. So, these authors tend to denay L. inkiti since they have enough materials of the genus to judge. I think their arguments are sufficient while caution is excessive and L. inkiti should be synonymized to L. tetraphylla.] Cordulia aenea Belyshev, 1956: "16. Cordulia aenea amurensis Selys, 1887. 1 male, 8.VI-45 - Sikhote-Alin' Nature Reserve; 3 males, 3.VII-41; 9 males and 2 females; 22.VII-41; 1 male, 25.VII-41; 1 male and 1 female, 29.VII-41; 3 females, 9.VII-42; 1 male and 2 females, 16.VII-42; 1 male, 11.IX-43 - the Okhot coast, the Tugur River mouth. Almost all our specimens present an interesting mixture of characters between the typical and Amurian form amurensis Selys. Having a considerable series of this species, including different ages, I find it possible to express a certain opinion about eastern specimens, even so that they can be compared with a large series of typical ones. Selys Longchamps in 1887 has separated the Amurian (v. Pokrovka) C. aenea L. from typical ones, considering them to differ by a smaller size and absence of the ochre colouration at wing bases. After this noone more reports about findings of C. a. amurensis even in places adjacent to the place of description. Thus, Bartenev (1911) can not attribute Transbaikalian specmens to the form amurensis Selys, as having a strongly expressed ochre colouration at wing bases. Yakutian specimens, according to Bartenev (1917) represent only a weak degree (in the wing colouration) of transition to amurensis Selys. Of 3 specimens from Ussuriiskii Krai (the Odarka River) and Transbaikalia (the Symnyur River) Bartenev (1914) did not find completely the yellow colouration on wings in only one male, in one female it is weakly expressed, but in another one, from the Odarka River, on the contrary, strongly. In a specimen from Mandzhuria there is no deviations from the typical form. No deviations are noted also in specimens from the upper flow of Enisei (Bartenev, 1910). Lastly, in all our specimens the yellow colouration at wing bases is well expressed, even in very teneral ones. So, basing on the materials available from the adjacent places, as well as Priamurye [Amurland] as such (the Symnyur River, Transbaikalia [Tranbaikalia is not commonly included into Amurland]) it is clear that the yellow colouration on wings or its absence can not be considered as a systematic character. A large series of C. aenea from Wes Siberia also supports our conclusion. Thus, from the surroundings of Biysk C. aenea often has a very weak yellow colouration, and in some cases it is absent. The same is observed in the northern Narym, where at the same time a specimen was recorded with a complete reduction of yellow colouration. In specimens from the Kulundinskaya Steppe (Lake Lyagushachye) in a number of specimens a yellow colour at wing bases is completely missing, in some it is in a rudimental state. In a number of specimens from NE Altai the yellow colour is very weakly developed. Now let us mention the variation in size. Selys Longchamps (1887) gives for his new form the following (these data are cited from Yakobson and Bianci "Pryamokrylye i lozhnosetchatokrylye", where the size of the male abdomen is given as 32-38 mm, that is larger than in typical, that does not match with the indication in the text on a smallness of the form, that is either error or mistake): Males Females Abdomen ? 30-34 mm Hind wing 28-29 mm 28-30 mm While the corresponding measures in European, that is typical, are as follows: Males and females Abdomen 33-36 mm Hind wing 32-35 mm It is clear that teh dimensional differences are significant and quite justify isaolation of the Amurian specimens into an especial subspecies. The Transbaikalian specimens are distinctly somewhat smaller than the European ones: Males Females Abdomen 32-34 30 mm Hind wing 29-32 mm 31 mm but at the same time larger than those described by Selys Lonchamps. Specimens from the Ussurian Krai have the following dimensions: According to Bartenev Our measurements Males Females Males Females Abdomen ? 30-34 mm 29 mm 29.8-30.8 mm Hind wing 28-29 mm 28-30 mm 28-29.5 mm 29.5-30.5 mm Again we have contradictory data on the abdomen length and close those on the hind wing length, which correspond to the form amurensis Selys. West Siberian specimens have the following dimensions: Males Females Abdomen 35 mm 32-35 mm Hind wing 28-36.8 mm 32-35.5 mm From here it is clear that West Siberia is inhabited by just a large form , almost equal to the European one and obviously larger than amurensis Seys, although some specimens deviate to this subspecies. Inconsistency in the abdomen size between the specimens by Bartenev and mine from the Ussurian Kra, by Bartenev from Transbaikalia and Selys Longchamps' data from the Amur should be explained only by different methods of measurements, It is clear that Bartenev included also the anal appendages into the length of the abdomen. At least it is clear that the eastern specimens are smaller and they should retain the name amurensis given by Selys Longchamps, but from the diagnosis excluded should be the absence of the yellow colouration, which is not pertained to a certain territory. Specimens with the absence of yellow colour at the wing bases should be considered as a special aberration - ab. selysi Belyshev nova." Belyshev, 1973, pp. 377-379 "SYSTEMATIC NOTES. The species is very close to the American C. shurtleffi Scud., forming with it a vicariant pair and very probably, judging by a figure, that both species are only subspecies of the same common species. Geographical variation of C. aenea L. is exhibited not distinctly: throughout its tremendous range the species gives only in the east of Siberia a subspecies C. a. amurensis Selys, differing from the type by only smaller size. Selys Longchamps (1887), when isolating the Amurian form, noted as its basic character the disappearance of the yellow colouration from its wings. Our studies (Belyshev, 1956a) showed that both subspecies differ only in size, while the yellow colouration in the wing bases does not disappear in the eastern specimens but only exhibits a trend to disappearance. This is expressed in some specimens, isolated by us iinto a special aberration - C. aenea ab. selysi Belyshev, often met with in the East but very rarely in the West. Specimens from the western and, most probably, central part of Siberia often exhibit an interesing mixture of characters between both subspecies (Belyshev, 1956a). Systematic position of Japanese dragonflies remains unknown. TABLE FOR IDENTIFICATION OF SUBSPECIE OF C. AENEA L. 1(2) Dragonflies small. Hind wing: in males no more than 30 mm, in females 31 mm.........................C. a. amurensis Selys (Siberia east of the line Lake Baikal - the Yana River) 2() Dragonflies large. Hind wing in males and females not less than 32 mm. The rest territory----------------------C. aenea aenea L." Malikova, 1995: "In the Far East it [C. aenea] is represented by ssp. C. a. amurensis Selys, 1887, inhabiting also NE SIberia (the Yana and Indigirka Rivers) and Transbaiklaia" [O. K.: As to me, the subspecies based only on size are nonsense. Belyshev has well shown that colouration features on which subspecies in a number of species (such as Epitheca bimaculata, Gomphus flavipes) were based by earlier authors are just the matter of individual variation, but he mostly retained subspecies basing solely on the size, by leaving some threshold value to consider individuals below it as one subspecies and above as others (too often individuals fall just into the very value). Here we have two subspecies considered by Belyshev as differing by 1 mm and exhibiting a transition zone being the entire territories of West and Central Siberia, fairly 2500 km! I think the question should be regarded as closed. The name selysi was naturally regarded as infrasubspecific, but by this name Belyshev designated a character condsidered by Selys as the diagnostic feature of amurensis. According to Belyshev, the type(s) of amurensis was (were) based on aberrant specimens. This makes no problem with the subspecies name, provided the subspecies is considered to exist, but I am not sure one has to introduce another name for aberration exhibited by the type of a subspecies.] "Macromia bartenevi Belyshev, 1973. Belyshev, 1973 (pp. 388-389). "...M. A. Lieftink (1955) in a special study of the genus Macromia did not attributed the Barteneff's specimens to the species M. amphigena Selys. S. Asahina (1964) consider these specimens as belonging to M. amphigena fraenata Mart., but on the figure given of the male anal appendages (fig. 138) characters are given quite different from what is present on the figure by A.N. Bartenev and what we saw on our specimen." "All this allowed us to isolate our specimens into a new species - Macrimia bartenevi sp. n. - in the honour of A.N. Bartenev, since the difference have been noticed by this odonatologist, the description of which we retain as the original description of the species" [O.K. According to Art. 13.1.2 of ICZN, this means that the species was described by reference, to description of specimens by Bartenev (1914), which he provisionally and doubtfully identified as "Macromia ?amhigena". Hence the type series of the new species consists of Bartenev's specimens (male and female) only, which most probably are lost. The word "our' in the translated passage meant "here considered"] "... The range of this species is unclear, as it is known only by three specimens: two from the environs of city Harbin and one from the Middle Amurland (the Birushka River). Most probably this is an Amurian endemic." [O.K. The provenance of Bartenev's specimens was indicated as "North Manchouko (Station Imjanpo, North China Railroad)". On the map, I found a town Inshoupu near Tsingdzhen, which is at some distance from the rainroad and very far from Harbin.] Malikova, 1995: "In 1973 B. F. Belyshev [1973b] has described a new species M. bartenevi by a male from Khabarovsk Province (Pereyaslavsk Distr., the Kiya River at the Birushka River mouth), attributing to these species the specimens from NE China reported by A. N. Bartenev (1914). The only diagnostic character of the new species B. F. Belyshev reported the shape of the male anal appendages. Having studied the type specimen of M. bartenevi in the collection of Zoological Museum of Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, I found out that it is a teneral, not fully spread male of M. a. fraenata with the anal appendages folded. The drawing of the anal appendages is very schematic and it is incorrect to base a description of a new species on it. Thus, we consider M. bartenevi Belyshev, 1973 as a junior synonym of M. amphigena fraenata Martin, 1906." [O.K. Although identification of Belyshev's only specimen as M. a. fraenata is correct, the synonymy statement is incorrect since Belyshev's specimen from Kiya River was not a syntype, see my above note. The species M. bartenevi seems still to be valid, with the type series consisting of specimens by Bartenev, which is missed. If new specimens from North China fitting description by Bartenev (1914) were found, designation of the neotype of M. bartenevi is desirable.] Leucorrhinia intermedia Malikova, 1995: " Leucorrhinia intermedia Bartenef, a larva Measurements: The body length: 17.0-20.o mm The wing case legth 4.8-5.0 mm The head width 4.8-5.0 mm The 6th abdominal segment width 5.8-6.3 mm The hind femur length 5.0 mm The larvae are of intermediate size for the genus Leucorrhinia, greyish-brown or grey. A wide dark stripe goes through entire dorsal side of the abdomen, which entirely embraces the 10th tergirte abd the anal pyramid. Within this stripe each tergite, except for the 10th one, bears 4 very dark points: two on the band lateral edges and two points (or short strokes) closer to the tergite centre. Obscure dark spots may present on the light lateral parts of the abdomen. Sometimes a dorsal stripe is split into two dark stripes or lines, leaving light the central part of the abdomen. On the ventral side of the abdomen on each segments except for 9th and 10th there are two dark short transversal strokes. The head is short and wide, the eyes are less protruding than in other representatives of the genus. The head hind angles are covered with rather long setae. The labium is spoon-shaped, reaching the second pair leg bases. The mentum is smoothly widening to the apex, its middle lobe is well expressed, triangular. The palpi bear 7-9 wide tooth on the distal edge. There are 14-15 mental setae and 9-11 (usually 10) palpal setae. The legs are relatively short; the femora and tibiae bear long hairs and setae, besides, there are two rows of acute spines on the hind femora and tibiae. The abdomen is convex dorsally, flat ventrally. 3-8(6)th segments have the dorsal spines. They are thin and long on the segments 3-5, starting from 6th one their length reduces. The spine on the 8th segment in very small, often absent, less frequently that on 7th segment is also absent. In three specimens from Kolyma the dorsal spines are present only on the segments 3-5. The lateral spines present on 8-9 segments, they are rather small. acute, with almost straight internal edge. In the last instar larvae the length of the spine on the 8th segment equals 0.40 mm, that on the 9th segment - 0.55-0.60 mm. The spined on the 9th segment end at the level of the middle of the cerci or reach their apices. The anal pyramid equals in length to 9th and 10th tergits taken together. The lengths of the cerci, epiprocts, and paraprocts equal 0.6:1.2:1.4 mm, respectively. From the relative species L. rubicunda the larva of L. intermedia differs by longer lateral spines (in L. rubicunda the spines of the 9th segment do not exceed the length of the 10th segment), the abdominal ornament (in L. rubicunda the abdomen is dorsally evenly-coloured or hasobscure spots), and less prominent eyes." Leucorrginia intermedia Belyshev, 1973: 320: "at last, it is absolutely indifferent how to evaluate this [the mutual status of intermedia and rubicunda]: either as well differentiated subspecies or weakly formed close species with predominating of only quantitative variations in their peculiarities". Leucorrginia rubicunda Belyshev, 1973: 326: "Delimitation of territories occupied by L. rubicunda L. and L. intermedia Bart. is not so simple, but as a first approach the species ought to be considered as vicariant, that is colliding but not living together on the Yenisei Iiver, and in the southern part of Siberia on Altai (fig. 109), although there are reasons to suppose that the central part of Siberia will appear to be habitated by intermediate forms. Investigations of this question represents a great interest and will finally resolve how we should consider the interrelation of both species: species or subspecies." Leucorrhinia circassica Ketenchiev, Haritonov, 1998: p. 34: "L. circassica. B[elonoska] cherkasskaya. The status of the speces is discutable. The range and biology are not known. Descrived by A. N. Bartenev in 1929 from the territory of the Caucasian Nature Reserve. Some systematics consider this species as a subspecies of L. dubia, widely ranging in the temperate zone of Europe and West Siberia." Ketenchiev, Haritonov, 1999: p. 54: " both these species [Leucorrhinia dubia and L. rubicunda] are absent from the Caucasus, but from the territory of the Caucasian Nature Reserve, A. N. Bartenev described a peculiar population of dragonflies of the genus Leucorrhinia as a special species L. circassica Bartenef, 1929. This species is close to L. dubia but have a number of distinct differences from the latter [O. K. I guess only those reported by Bartenev] Thus, the genus Leucorrhinia most probably is not autochtonic for the Mediterranian. Five of its six European species just penetrate into the region from the north, but L. circassica is an endemic of the Caucasus formed under conditions of a long isolation from the main generic range. Distribution of the species of this genus is distinctly connected with forests, so the forestless areas neighbouring the Caucasus from the north prevent penetration of these dragonflies to its territory [O. K.: but two widely ranging species managed to do this!]. But the same circunstance conditioned formation here of an endemic species, ancestors of which could get to the Caucasus in one of less xerothermic phases of the climate [O. K.: no more than 5 thousand years ago, too short!] when forests existed in place of the recent steppes." [O. K.: So, these authors cautiously retain L. circassica as a Caucasian endemic. I have no own notion about this region but I think it to be highly improbably for it to be a Caucasian endemic species indeed and would believe this was an isolated population of L. dubia, maybe a Caucasian subspecies, which most probably have already become extinct. Neurothemis ramburii Bartenev, 1919: p. 295-296: "Genus 10. Neurothemis Brauer. Neurothemis palliata palliata Ris. (Neurothemis palliata Krueger, Neurothemis fluctuans palliata Selys) 1 [male]. Vladivostok, from coll. of Tarenetskiy (Wladiwostok) [O.K.: this is a German tranliteration, the English transliteration is Vladivostok] In view of contradictions among authors concerning systematics and volume of some forms from the genus Neurothemis, here we give a detailed description of the collection specimen, which we assume to be Neurothemis palliata palliata Ris; = Neurothemis fluctuans palliata Selys; = Neurothemis palliata Krueger [references are given as footnotes]. The characters of our specimen are as follows: Pterostigma 3 mm; field behind node (netween node and pterostigma) 10 mm; 17-19 antenodal nervures; 14-15 postnodal nervures. Wing triange with 11-14 cells; 8 rows of cells in discoidal field. Abdomen length 26 mm, hind wing length 32 mm. Field between radius and main sector from start of subnodal sector to node is free. Main sector branch is at level of pterostigma base. 1 submedianquerader (Cuq) on left fore wing, 2 on right one. Wing coloration distally reaches pterostigma base; on hind wing its margin curves at wing hind margin towards wing base and so leaves a narrow transparent border along its margin to middle of its length. Finding in Vladivostok of this representative of a genus characteristic for the Indo-Australian islands was very unexpected. In the just cited work, Ris surprisingly states the finding of Neurothemis palliata palliata in Formosa, while now its northern border is to be shifted far more to the north." Belyshev, 1973: p. 292-293: "Genus VII. Neurothemis Brauer, 1867 (fig. 92) A widely distributed southern genus, going southwards to North Australia and to the north to South Primorye, but absent from Japan. In Siberia it is represented by one species. 30. Neurothemis palliata Ramb., 1842. Systematic notes. A specimen from Primorye was attributed by A.N. Bartenev (1919a) to the typical form - N. p. palliata Ramb. Distribution. A Korean-Chinese and Malay species, confined to a narrow strile along the coast of the Pacific Ocean. In Siberia, the only finding of this species was recorded by A.N. Bartenev (1912a). In southern part of Primorye, there is the northern limit of distribution of this species to the North. It is impossible to anticipate findings of this species on Sakhalin and the Kurile islands since it is absent from Hokkaido island. In the region of Lake Khanka, as well as on the islands most close to Vladivostok, such as Putyatin, Askold, Russkiy, Popova etc. the species will no doubt be found. Data to the species' history. It is impossible to say anything about the history of this species rare in our area. Biology. Since the species is known by the only record, its biology in the conditions of Siberian remains completely unknown. [P. 293] Fig. 92. Neurothemis Brauer. [male] Wing. After Fraser, 1933-1936. " Malikova, 1995: " Genus Neurothemis Brauer, 1867 80. Neurothemis fluctuans (Fabricius, 1793) Bartenev, 1912б:295-296 (palliata palliata Ris). Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore [Asahina, 1969; Tsuda, 1986]; southern Primorskiy Kray? The species was reported by A.N. Bartenev by one male from Vladivostok, from collections by Tarenetskiy. Later it was never found in the Far East of Russia and neighboring regions (the closest findings of the species are in Cambodia and Vietnam [Asahina, 1969]). Unfortunately, the specimen described by Bartenev no more exists. If its identification was correct, we should take into account a possibility of occasional transportation of the Malaysian-Indochinese species into the port sity Vladivostok onboard of a sea ship. The nomenclature is given according to the modern species of the workd fauna [Davies, Tobin, 1985; Tsuda, 1986]." OK: Judging from the description, as well as current synonymy, this specimen must have been Neurothemis ramburii rather than N. fluctuans. Orthetrum spp., including "O. translatum" Bartenev, 1929:
Here a determination of two small collections received by me from Prof. V. S. Elpatyevskii (Baku) and from A. A. Shorygin (Moscow). The former originates from northern Persia (the Caspian Sea coast), the second from Migry settlement upon Araks (in the former Erivan Provence), from Erivan', and also from the Semirechye Province in Turkestan. ...
7. Orthetrum translatum, sp. n. - Migry, 14. VII. 1927, 2 females.
Head entirely yellow; thorax yellow, there is a pair of whitish stripes hardly noticeable on thorax frontal side, or they are absent et all; laterally of them there are vestigal (present only in the fore half) dark praehumeral streaks; thorax sides entirely yellow, without black lines and white stripes; abdomen entirely yellow, only the medial and lateral ribs black; sides of 8th tergite widened as in O. anceps Schn and chrysostigmum Burm.
8th sternite hind hargin with a wide and shallow triangular incision; bottom of this incision of a black colour; diverging margins of the incision roundishly swallen at middle; these swellings yellowish, do not protrude beind; distance between their apices exceeds 1/2 of sternite width.
Anq 11-12. Membranula in one specimen blackish as in O. chrysostigmum, in the other grey. Arc situated somewhat proximally than Anq2, in one case at Anq2. Rs-Rspl with one cell ow. t free. Pterostigma light. In A4-A5 - 4-(5) cells.
Wings with a strong development of yellow; the yellow coloration equally on fore and hind wings occupies their entire base down up to A; behind A. there is sometimes [in two females - O. K.] a less intensive yellowish coloration graduallydisappearing to middle or end of anal field, so it continues up to t; distally of t the coloration, gradually weakening, continues to wing fore part between C and M1-8 (or M4) until nodus; further it continues only between C and M2 and gradually disappears about halfway between Nod and pterosting or closer to the latter.
Abdomen length 25-26, hind wing length 26-28, pterostigma (of fore wings, measured along pterostigma fore margin) 3-3.25 mm. Male unknown.
By the position of Arc, by absence of light stripes on thorax sides resembles O. anceps while by the membranula colour close to O. chrysostigmum. A characteristic wing coloration and genital plate say that this is a new species, in general as if somewhat [sic!] intermediate between the mentioned species. By the way, the end of sternite 8 in these two species, according to our data, is of the following structure. In O. anceps: the incision is rather quadrangutlar, its bottom is straight or wavy, black, the incision margins are as two very small yellow projections, protruding behind by their angle-like apices; the incision margins do not diverge or diverge, so that the distance between the nehind protruding angle-like apices is equal less [sic!] 1/4 of the sternite width; in O. chrysostigmum: the incision is almost unnoticeable; the mlack hind margin of sternite 8 wavy; laterally and slilghtly forward of it there is a pair of either large or very small, not touching the hind margin, yellow spots.
Here I give the table of the Orthetrum species which were recorded from the USSR or not far from its borders.
1 (18) Rs-Rspl 1 row of cells. A4-A5 4-5 cells
2 (9) males
3 (8) Ia almost vertical o slightly skewed behind by its apex; at least its apic lies behind not further than the hamulus base. Anq 9-13. Pterostigma light. Membranula white or grey. Wing base without yellow. Body male adlt. in a blue bloom. Arc between Anq1-2.
4 (5) Incision between Ia and Aa shallow. Aa ends with a short, protruding up and somewhat forward, narrowed, a very peculiar projection. Ia and Aa equal in height. Anq 9-11. Pterostigma 2<3 mm. There is a whitish line on the outer side of femora and, partly, tibiae. Male adlt. in a light-blue bloom. Abdomen base strongly swallen dorso-ventrally. Membranula greyish. From Persia to Egypt. ........O. rasonetti Brauer.
5 (4). Incision between Ia and Aa shallow. Aa wide and less defined, since Ia much lower than Aa and Aa rounded and not stretched up into a narrowed projection. Anq 10-13. Pterostigma 2.5-4 mm. Legs in male adlt. black. Abdomen atbase more gradually and less dorsoventrally [sic] widened. Membranula white or greyish
6 (7). Ia swallen apically and skewed somewhat forward. Membranula whitish. Anq 11-13. Pterostigma 3-4 mm. Western Europe to Poland....................O. caerulescens Fabr.
7 (6). Ia apically not widened or slightly narrowed and not skewed forward, almost vertical or slightly skewed behind. Membranula greyish. Anq 10-12. Pterostigma 2,5-3,5 mm. - North Africa, Balcan Peninsula, Anterior Asia to the Caucasian Range in the north (footnote: north of the Caucasian Range two-three localities are known) and to Kashmir. ................. ...............................................................O. anceps Schn..
8 (3). Ia strongly skewed behind, so that its apex lies clearly further behind than base of hamulus. Membranula blackish. Thorax with light streaks. Frons without black. Venules in sc light. Anq 9-13 (14). Arc at A2 or between A2-A3. - Africa and southern Asia to south Spain, Syria, and southern China. .......... ...............................................................O. chrysostigmum Burm.
9 (2) Females
10 (11) Sides of tergite 8 not widened at all. Thorax sides without white stripes. Arc between Anq 1-2. Membranula greyish. ...... O. rasonetti Brauer
11 (10). Sides of tergite 8 always widened. Sometimes thorax sides with light stripes.
12 (13). Wing bases with a yellow coloration which continues, gradually weakeninh, behind nodus. Membranula blackish or grey. Thorax sides without light spots. Arc between Anq1-2 or at Anq2. - Migry upon the Arax. .....................O. translatum, sp. n.
13 (12). Wing bases without yellow coloration, just its weak traces may present at very bases.
14 (15). Membranula blackish. Thorax sides as a rule with one or more light stripes. Arc at Anq2 or between Anq2-3............................. O. chrysostigmum Burm.
15 (14). Membranula white or grey, Thorax sides often without light stripes. Arc at Anq2 or proximally of it.
16 (17) Membranula bright white. .................. O. caerulescens Fabr.
17 (16) Membranula greyish. .......................... O. anceps Schn.
18 (1) Rs-Rspl 2 rows of cells.
19 (20) Membranula white or whitish. A4-A5 - 5-7 (8) cells. Pterostigma >2-3 mm. Anq 11-16. Arc between Anq1-2. Males adlt in a light blue bloom. Fore margin of Ia very slanting, almost lies behind. Ia directed behind and outwards. Aa lower than Ia. There is no lateral rib on female tergite 8. Genital plate with a deep, wide, somewhat quadrangular incsion. - From SW Europe through Anterior Asia to eastern Mongolia .......................O. brunneum Fons.
20 (19). Membranula grey or black.
21 (22) Abdomen base spaerically swallen, further abdomen very narrow while abdomen end widened dorso-ventrally. A4-A5 3-4 cells. Male aldt. without blue bloom. Thorax sides with black and light streaks. - Form Transcaucasia to Somali, Central China, Australia and the Bismark Islands. .......................................................................... O. sabina Drury.
22 (21) Abdomen base is not spaerically swallen, while abdomen end is not widened dorso-ventrally. A4-A5 3-6 cells.
23 (30) Males
24 (27). Hamulus not subdivided into Ia and Aa and is a vertically, in a longitudinal plane, set blade, often of a complicated shape. A4-A4 5-6 (7) cells. An1 11-15. Apex of La bilobate.
25 (26). Abdomen at base almost not widened. Black stripe on 1st lateral suture of thorax rudimental, does not go up above stigma. Yellow stripes on thorax sides often absent. Anal appendages black. Pterostigma 2-3 mm. La subdivided by an incision almost up to 1/2 of its height. Hamulus with a strong processus pointed outwards. Europe except for the extreme North, western Asia to Kashgharia and western Siberia to Minusisk. ................... O. cancellatum
26 (25). Abdomen rather strongly widened at base. Black stripe on 1st lateral suture of thorax well developed, goes up above stigma. Thorax sides s often with tw wide yellowish stripes: 1) between humeral and 1st lateral seam and 2) behind 2nd lateral suture. Anal appendages white or in adlt. at least partly whitish. Pterostigma 3-4 mm. Incision of La not deeper than 1/4 or 1/3 of its height. Hamulus with an insufficient roller-like outward projection, only in singular cases with a somewhat pointed, very short apex. Moderate subregion of Palaearctic from southern France to Japan.. ................... O. albistylum.
27 (24). Hamulus subdivided into Ia and Aa or Aa is absent. Hamulus is not a vertically, not up narrowed blade. A4-A4 4-6 cells. An1 10-14. Apex of La unilobate.
28 (29). La vertical or slightly slanting behind. Aa absent at all. Pterostigma 2-2.5 mm. Abdomen with a black stripe along medial seam. A4-A5 5-6 cells. Anq 10-12. Arc between Anq 1-2. Anterior Asia and adjacent bank of Africa. ................................ O. taeniolatum
29 (28). La strongly slanting behin, so that its apex lies at the level of middle of hamulus base. Aa present but lower Ia. Pterostigma 2.5-3.5 mm. A4-A5 4-5 cells. Anq no more than 14. Arc between Anq 2-3. Venules in sc light ................................... O. chrysostigmum Barm.
30 (23). Females.
31 (36). At either side between the middle and lateral ribs of at least middle abdominal segments there goes a wide lengthwise black, sometimes interrupted and vestigal, stripe leaving yellow spots or semilunules at lateral ribs of segments and a yellow stripe at long abdomen middle, on each side of medial rib. A4-A5 5-7 cells.
32 (35). Hind margin of sternite 8 with a narrow but deep incision. Dimensions not less than: hind wing 33, abdomen 28 mm. Anq 11-15.
33 (34). Thorax side with a complete black line on 2nd lateral suture and with an incomplete one, reaching stigma at most, on 1st lateral suture. Pterostigma 2-3 mm. Sides of tergite 8 not widened at all. Anal appendages in adlt. dark. ...........O. cancellatum L.
34 (33). Black stripe on 1st lateral always goes at list a bit above stigma. Pterostigma 3-4 mm. Sides of tergite 8 clearly widened. Anal appendages in adlt. white. ....O. albistylum Selys.
35 (32). Hind margin of sternite 8 almost straight, without an incision. Dimensions not greater than: hind wing 28, abdomen 25 mm, pterostigma 2.5 mm. Anq 10-11. Black stripes at abdomen sides vestigal. Matrgins of tergite 8 not widened at all. .......... O. taeniolatum Schn.
36 (31). Abdomen yellow, almost without black. A4-A5 4-5 cells. Margins of tergite 8 widened.. Venules in sc light. Pterostigma 2.5-3.5 .......................O. chrysostigmum
Orthetrum anceps Belyshev et al., 1989, in its part concerning Central Asia written by S. Borisov, pages 22-23:
"O. anceps is common throught the entire territory in vallies and foothills up to the elevation of 1500 m above sea level. In the mountains in the south it was recorded up to the absolute height of 2400 m. The species' systematics is not fully clear, A. N. Bartenev (1929b) describes [sic, present historical], by two females from Migry settlement in South Armenia O. translatum as close to O. nceps, and indicates a strong development of yellow coloration on wings as one of the basic characters. V. N. Krylova (1969) reports O. translatum for Kirghizia. A surway of more than 100 specimens from different places of Middle Asia has shown that a strong yellowing of wings is characteristic for females of O. anceps, the character being well expressed in young, just hathed individuals. With age, the yellow coloration in most part of females disappears and remains as well noticeable in few specimens only. For a final decision of the question a comparison of material from Middle Asia and Transcaucasia is necessary. Most probably, O. translatum will appear a synonym of O. anceps."
Orthetrum melania Belyshev, 1965, p 611: "2. Orthetrum triangulare melania Selys. 1 female, 26 June 1962, Kunashir Island at Kurile Archipelago, Alekhino village, a hot spring (V. Nechaev); 1 male, 1 August 1962, the same place (Z. Konovalova). A Chinese-Japanese supspecies of a south-east-asian species. In Japan it was found on Hokkaido island by S. Asahina (1938) but was not reported from islands of the Kurile Archipelago, that follows from another paper by the same author (1959). Thus, the finding of the species on Kunashir Island is the first for the USSR and introduces a new species into our fauna" Belyshev et al., 1976, p. 166 Orthetrum triangulare melania Selys. So far in USSR, this species was known just by two specimens fromj Kunashir Island (Belyshev, 1965). A series of 10 specimens, collected on that island in 1968, evidences for a strong individual variation of the species. In some of them the wings are transparent throughout, except for bases, but with dark tips, in others they are darkened throughout with a light-brown tint. Perhaps, the general wing darkening is partly a manifestation of age variability, since this character in a number of cases, but far not always, correlates with a complete covering of the abdomen with a glaucous pruinescence. material: Kunashir, Alekhino, 5/VIII 1986 - 10 males" Crocothemis erythraea chaldaeorum Belyshev et al., 1989. "C. e. chaldaeorum - ranges on the majority of territory [O.K.: Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan Tadjijistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan north to the conventional border the Aral Sea - Lake Balkhash - Lake Alakul]. In the south is common in piedmonts and rare in the mountains up to 2000 m. In Kirghizia (Krylova, 1969) does not recorded in the mountains. By systematic characters the speciemens from the south of Middle Asia correspond to the description of C.e.chalcaeorum by Schneider (1985., the reference is missing from the reference list!), differing in small details, for instance, weak but noticeable basal spot on the fore wings in some males and, sometimes, by three rows of cells in discoidal field of fore wings." Borisov, Haritonov, 2008: 105-106: "Crocothemis erythraea chaldaeorum Morton, 1920 Taxonomical notes. The African-Eurasian species C. erythraea (Brulle, 1823) is subdivided into two subspecies. The African-European part of the range is occupied by the nominotypical subspecies, while the Asian part by C. e. chaldaeorum. This subspecies was earlier considered a local endemic of Iraq. Examination of specimen series from NorthWwest Africa and South Europe preserved in Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Scinences (St. Petersburg), and also collections in North Caucasus and Central Asia has shown that Central Asian populations well differ from Affrican and European (e. g. from the Danube mouth) ones. At the same time, in North Caucasus all specimens bear characters intermediate between subspecies and their attribution to any of the subspecies is problematic. Most probably, the same situation takes place also on the Upland of Asia Minor. All specimens from there are identified only up to species [Kalkman et al., 2004a, 2004b, Pelt, 2004], only H. Beutler  reports the nominotypical subspecies for Transcaucasia. The Near East is probably characterised already by C. e. chaldaeorum. This W. Schneider [1985a, 1986] found there great differences of local populations from C. e. erythraea and considers the form chaldaeorum as ain independent species. Unclear remains the situation with this taxon in the Iranian Upland. Only S. Asahina (1973) reported C. e. chaldaeorum for Iran. Other authors report specimens without a subspecies name or report both species simultaneously [Dumont, 1991; Dumont, Heidari, 1996; Heidari, Dumont,. 2002] that is erroneous to our opinion. Thus, in one of the works [Dumont, Heidari, 1996- where the photos of the female genital plate are given, attribution of the specimens to the subspecies C. e. chaldaeorum is easily recognised, although both authors leave them without subspecies names. Subspecific attribution of dragonflies from the south of Arabian Peninsula remains unclear as well; specimens of C. erythraea are reported from there without subspecies names [Dumont, Al-Safari, 1993]. It is interesting that by literature sources (before our research), only this species [O.K.: C. erythraea] was reported for this region [O.K.: Central Asia within the former USSR], while for the second species, C. servilia, only one repotrt by A.N. Popova  existed for yje mouth of the Ferghana Valley (Leninabad city) by data adopted by her from an unpublished manuscript by A.N. Bartenev. In the same work, A. N. Popova  reported numerous localities of C. erythraea in Tadjikistan. Analysis of specimens from the collection of IZiP of Academy of Sciences of tadjikistan (Dushanbe), identified by A. N. Popova as C. erythraea, has shown that in fact most of them belonged to C. servilia. Other authors report for this region only C. erythraea as well:.... .... Range. In Central Asia [within the former USSR - O.K.], C. e. chaldaeorum ranges widely. The northernmost localities lie at Lake Balkhash. In the Pamiro-Alai Mts. it was recorded upt to the abcolute height of 2000 m, but is already rare above 1300 [Borisov, 2002], in Tian Shan - only on piedmont plains [Krylova, 1969]. At the same time, F. Brauer  reported the species for highlands (10000 ft.) that needs confirmations". And in the text for Crocothemis servilia: "By morphological characters the Central Asian specimens are most close to South Asian ones, differing from the nominotypical Chinese species, in particular, by the shape and size of the female genital plate. In this respect the following circumstance is worth to note, which resulted in confusion in identification of Central Asian subspecies of C. erythraea and C. servilia ssp. Habitually, by specimen size and especially by the shape of the genital plate in females, the subspecies C. e. erythraea is very similar to the Central Asian subspecies C. servilia ssp. At the same time, the Central Asian subspecies C. e. chaldaeorum much resembles the nominotypical form C. s. servilia from China by these characters. Thus, using, for instance, a key for the Crocothemis species in G.G. Yakobosn and V.P. Bianchi , which was composed for the nominotypical forms, a wrong identification of these species would be inevitable." Sympetrum sanguineum Belyshev, 1973, pp. 281-282: "SYSTEMATIC NOTES. Our dragonflies belong to the Siberian subspecies S. s. sykinia Belyshev. More southerly and westerly this subspecies contacts with others, that makes necessary to give its differential diagnosis which we will give for males, as in females the characters of geographical variation are not so distinct. From the type our specimes differ, first of all, by a longer lower anal apendage, which, as in S. s. obsoletum Bart., protrudes behind the lower-hind angle of the upper ones, and also by a more straight upper margin of the appendage; from S. s. armeniacum Selys it differs sharply as having a well developed black pattern on the body and entirely black legs, but is close to this subspecies by the size of the lower anal appendage; from S. s. obsoletum Bart. it differs by a weak development of the yellow colouration on the wings, but is very close to this form by the size of the lower anal appendage reaching the half of the length of the uppers. Thus, our specimens morphologically are most close to S. s. obsoletum Bart. An interesting characteristic for all the geographic forms of the species - they show no transitory, that is, quantitative changes, as different characters mix in different combinations. All these characters can be better compared in the following key for males. A KEY FOR IDENTIFICATION OF SUBSPECIES OF THE SPECIES S. SANGUINEUM MULL. Males. 1(2) Yellow colouration on wing bases extents always more than the half distance from the wing base to the triangle but can spread as well to node and even to pterostigm, this being expressed uniformly on both wing pairs. Lower anal appendage always reaches middle of hind margin of the uppers............S. s. obsoletum Bart. (Kazakhstan and adjacent lands, the Ukraine). 2(1) Yellow colouration in wing bases, although bright, does not reach half distance between wing base and triangle, on hind wings these spots always are more strongly developed. Lower anal appendage either reach the lower-hind angle of the uppers or only slightly goes behind it. 3(6) Legs entirely black or, as an exception, a yellow strike appears on internal surface of femora. 4(5) Lower anal appendage only reach or slighly goes behind the lower-hind angle of the uppers....S. s. sanguineum Mull. (Europe and, probably, Siberian Priuralye (near Ural area)). 5(4) Lower anal appendage almost reach middle of hind margin of th upper ........................S. s. sykinia Belyshev Upper Ob River and, probably, NE Kazakhstan 6(3) Legs more yellow than black; all femora, and often tibia with a wide yellow stripe.....S. s. armeniacum Selys Asia Minor and adjacent lands." and on page 284-285: "Areas of distribution of subspecies schematically are as follows: Siberia and, prbably, NE Kazakhstan are occupied by S. s. sykinia Belyshev; West Mongolia (?), Kazakhstan, the Ukraine, Turkestan, the northern Iran and the northern Caspian lands are occupied by S. s. obsoletum Bart.; Asia Minor, the north-west of Iran and Transcaucasia are inhabited by S. s. armeniacum Selys; the main part of the species range, that is the entire Europe and, probably, the eastern Priuralye are occupied by the typical form. Thusm theoretically our Siberian geographical form should contact S. s. sanguineum in the west and S. s. obcoletum Bart. in the south, but places of subspecies boders are unclear. We can only be sure that in Upper Ob' Basin there flies S. s. sykinia Belyshev. In Ural there probably lives the typical form. Systematic attribution of dragonflies from the Upper Enisei River basin is unknown." Sympetrum striolatum Belyshev, 1976: 167. "Sympetrum striolatum kurilis s. sp. nova Belyshev. There is a large series of quite uniform specimens which differ distinctly from the eastern subspecies - S. s. imitoides Bart. - by the following characters: there are no any yellow streaks on the femora of the second and third leg pairs, while the tibia with only very narrow yellow streaks on their outer sides. The black stripes along the sutures of the sides of the meso- and metathorax are very distinct and broad, while the anastomoses going through the stigma are very distinct and always complete. These characters are so distinct and constant that allow to isolate the dragonflies from Kunashir into a special geographic form, which is ascribed with the name - Sympetrum striolatum kurilis s. sp. nova Belyshev. Material. Holotype - male, 11/VIII 1969; Kunashir Island. Paratypes: 5 males, 8 females, 11/VIII 1968, the same place. All specimens are kept in Zoological Museum BIN SO RAN (Novosibirsk city). Systematic notes. The specimens studied are close to S. s. imitoides Bart. that allowed S. Asahina (1938, 1949, 1958) to attribute the dragonflies from the islands of Sakhalin, Kunashir and Hokkaido to the continental geographical form. It is quite probable that specimens from Hokkaido Island will appear to belong to the form described by us, as occupation of Kunashir by this and other species took place only from that island. As an interesting feature of our island subspecies, the drastic blackening of the legs should be considered, that is known in another island subspecies described from Madeira Island in Atlantic Ocean - S. s. nigrifemer [sic!] Selys. Of course, this is not by chance but is connected with living on islands. Perhaps the subspecies from the Kuriles and Madeira will form a distinct species with time, represented by narrowly local ranges at both sides of the Eurasian continent. If this happens, this will be an excellent example of allopatric origin of isolated populations of the species rather than remnants of a big, broad range." Sympetrum vulgatum Belyshev, [note, this very translation was made not by me but by Dr. E. I. Malikova]:
"Sympetrum vulgatum L.
Amur Bay near Vladivostok, 25 .VII.1961, 1m;
Shkotovsky distr., Maihe River, Anikin kordon, 8.VIII.1961, 1m;
Sudzuhe Nature Reserve [Ussuriskii at present - E.M.], Kievka River, 3.IX.1961, 1m;
Kedrovaya pad' Nature Reserve, 8.X.1961, 2m, 11f; Do., 12.X.1961, 2m, 14f; Do., 15.X.1961, 6f.
The large series of the species collected in Kedrovaya pad' Nature Reserve between October 8-15 is of interest. All 35 specimens are very similar in the wing colouration: the wings are strongly darkened, the colouration being most intensive along the costal margin. All the wings have pale main veins, which becomesomewhat darker to the hind wing margin.
Abdomen size usually less than 28 mm, only several specimens reach this limit or slightly exceed it. Hind wing does not exceed 32 mm; this length is recorded in few specimens, most having a smaller size.
So, our specimens obviously belong to S. v. imitans by the wing colouration, but belong to the typical form by the colour of veins and by the size.
The set of characters, their clarity and sustainability let us think that we deal with a special geographic form which is relative to S. v. imitans. The diagnostic features of the new subspecies should be as follows: dark frontal stripe in front of eyes absent or obscure being just a brownish strike. Fore and hind wings almost completely darkened along veins with brown; most intensively along costal margin. Veins pale in frontal part of wing and dark in rear part. Size relatively small, analogous to that of the type - S. v. vulgatum L., e.g. hind wing 32 mm or less and abdomen length 28 mm or less, rarely exceeding these dimensions. Genital plate small, as in the typical form.
The name proposed to the new form is Sympetrum vulgatum fuscopterum Belyshev ssp. nova.
We must consider this subspecies, like S. v. imitans, as more primitive to the type; the latter evolved from them in the West during the Ice Age. Both eastern subspecies occur in the places of their ancestry.
S. v. imitans belongs more to western and southern locations, e.g. drier places, and new subspecies is characteristic to north-eastern sector of species range with a more humid climate and forest landscapes.
It is quite natural that individual variability leads few specimens to the appearance of the type or of the southern subspecies - this phenomenon is known as parallelism in individual or geographical variability."
Malikova, 1995: " Sympetrum imitans Selys, a larva. The measurements: The body length 19.0-21.5 mm The wing case length 8.0 nn The head width 5.2 mm The 6th abdominal segment length 7.2-7.5 mm The hind femur length 6.0 mm. The larvae are large, dark-grey, the body is little haired. The head shape is typical for the genus, the eyes are not large, convex, slightly protruding. The occiput bears short setae. The labium is spoon-shaped, it goes behind the middle pair leg bases. The mentum length is 5 mm, its maximal width beinh 3.8-4.0 mm. The middle lobe of the mentum is well expressed, triangular. The palpi bear 9-10 wide tooth on the distal edge. There are 14-16 mental setae and 11-12 10) palpal setae. The legs are of intermediate length; the tibia and distal parts of the femora bear setae. The abdomen is convex dorsally, flat ventrally. There is no dorsal spines, only one exuvium had a blunt knob on the third segment. The lateral spines present on 8-9 segments. Those on the 8th segment are small, not exceeding 1/4 of the segment length (0.3-0.4 mm), those on the 9th segment are long (1.1-1.3 mm), robust, almost reaching the apices of the paraprocts. , they are rather small. acute, with almost straight internal edge. In the last instar larvae the length of the spine on the 8th segment equals 0.40 mm, that on the 9th segment - 0.55-0.60 mm. The spined on the 9th segment end at the level of the middle of the cerci or reach their apices. The anal pyramid equals in length to 9th and 10th tergits taken together. The lengths of the cerci, epiprocts, and paraprocts equal 0.8:1.4:1.9 mm, respectively. From the relative species S. vulgatum the larva of L. imitans differs easily by the absence of the dorsal spines (in S. vulgatum they present of the segments 2-8, rarely on 4-8, in S. v. decoloratum Selys - on the 3-8, rarely on 4-8 segments." [O. K.: There are strong evidence that the taxon imitans is no more than a subspecies of Sympetrum vulgatum]
REGIONS:The West Siberian Lowland Sukhacheva, 1979: Species with The Tobol The Ishim The Irtysh Barabinskaya Turgay Gap middle flow middle flow middle flow forest-steppe formerly presumed [Omsk, my data] [Lake Chany] S. sanguineum - + + + S. pedemontanum + - + - E. bimaculata - - - + O. serpentinus - + - - G. vulgatissimus - + reported - in early century Ae. mixta + - + + Ae. affinis + + + + L. barbara + + + + I. elegans - + + - P. pennipes - + - - L. albifrons - - - - L. caudalis - - - - A. parthenope - - - - [O. K.: In fact, among these species only L. albifrons, L. caudalis and A. parthenope seem not to inhabit West-Siberian lowland, the maps for others should be more simple than Belyshev's (without gaps).]
Only those are included from which some text is translated above
Bartenev, A. N. 1929. Donnees nouvelles sur les Odonates de la Transcaucasie, de la Perse et du Turkestan. Revue Russe d'Entom., XXIII, No. 1-2, p. 125-129 (in Russian, with a French title)
Belevich, O.G. 2005. Strekozy roda Aeshna (Odonata, Anisoptera) Palearktiki. Autoreferate of dissertation. Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Novosibirsk, 22 p.
Bartenev, A. N. 1956. Materialy k faune strekoz (Odonata, Insecta) Dal'nego Vostoka Rossii [Contributions towards a dragonfly fauna (Odonata, Insecta) of the Far East of Russia]. In: Kurentzov, A.I. (ed.) "Trudy Dal'nevostochnoho filiala imeni V.L. Komarova akademii nauk Soyuza SSR (ser. zool.), tom III(VI)" [Proceedings of the V. L. Komarov Far East Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Zoological Series)], Dal'nevostochnoe Knizhnoe Izdatel'stvo, Vladivostok, p. 201-238. (in Russian)
Belyshev, B. F., A.Y.Haritonov, S.N.Borisov, Z.D.Spuris, G.A.Mazokhin-Porshnyakov, P.A.Mokrushov, P.S.Pavlyuk, L.N.Pritykina, G.I.Ryazanova, E.S.Shalopenok, A.D.Pisanenko, G.A.Sukhacheva, I.N.Haritonova, V.V.Zaika, L.I.Frantsevich. Fauna and Ecology of Dragonflies. Nauka. 1989. Novosibirsk. 207 pp. (In Russian)
Belyshev, 1956 K podnaniyu dal'nevostochnoi fauny strekoz. [Contributions to our knowledge of the Far Eastern fauna of Odonata]. In: Kurentzov, A.I. (ed.) "Trudy Dal'nevostochnoho filiala imeni V.L. Komarova akademii nauk Soyuza SSR (ser. zool.), tom III(VI)" [Proceedings of the V. L. Komarov Far East Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Zoological Series)], Dal'nevostochnoe Knizhnoe Izdatel'stvo, Vladivostok, p. 181-199. (in Russian)
Belyshev, B. F. 1966.
Belyshev, B. F. 1973. The dragonflies of Siberia (Odonata). Volume I, parts 1,2. Nauka, Novosibirsk. [In Russian; English title].
Belyshev, B.F., Zolotorenko, G.S., Velizhanin, A.G. 1976. Odonatofauna Kuril'skikh ostrovov i nekotorye voprosy ee struktury i formirovaniya [Odonata fauna of the Kurile Islans and some issues of its structure and formation]. The dragonflies of Siberia (Odonata). Volume I, parts 1,2. Nauka, Novosibirsk. [In Russian; English title]. In: Trudy Biologicheskogo Instituta Sibirskogo Otdeleniya Akademii Nauk SSSR 18: 165-174 [In Russian]
Borisov S.N., A. Y. Haritonov. 2008. The dragonflies (Odonata) of Middle Asia. Part 2. (Anisoptera). Euroasian Entomological Journal 7 (2): 97-123. (In Russian, with English summary).
Ketenchiev, Kh. A., Haritonov, A. Yu. 1998. Opredelitel' strekoz Kavkaza. Uchebnoe posobie dlya studentov universitetov [Guide for Dragonflies of the Caucasus. Teaching materials for university students]. Kabardino-Balkarian State Pedogogical University. Nal'chik, 118 p. (in Russian)
Ketenchiev, Kh. A., Haritonov, A. Yu. 1999. Strekozy Sredizemnomorya [Dragonflies of the Mediterranian]. El'-Fa, Nal'chik., 116 p. (in Russian):
Malikova, E. I. 1995. Strekozy Dal'nego Vostoka Rossii [Dragonflies (Insecta, Odonata) of the Russian Far East]. Dissertation, Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Novosibirsk. (In Russian).
Haritonov, A. Y. 1988. Strekozy roda Ischnura Cgharp. (Insecta, Odonata) fauny SSSR [Damseflies of the genus ischnura (Insecta, Odonata) of the fauna of USSR. In: Taksonomia zhivotnykh Sibiri [Taksonomy of Animals of Siberia]. New and little known species of the fauna of Siberia. 20. pp. 32-46
Sukhacheva, G. A. 1989. Strekozy Zapadno-Sibirskoi lesostepi i ikh troficheskie svyazi [Dragonflies of West-Siberian Forest-Steppe and their Trophic Connections]. Dissertation submitted for a scientific degree of candidate of Biological Sciences [Ph. D. Thesis]. - Novosibirsk.
Back to the front page
Back to the Odonata page