Vanessa indica (Herbst, 1794) - Indian Red Admiral.
Belongs to a genus (here considered as including Cynthia) the representatives of which are extremely active migrants. Therefore, they have tremendows ranges, exhibit almost no intraspecies variation and make multiple, often irregular broods. Temporal populations may appear on range fringes. This species ranges in East and South Asia and appears regularly in SE Siberia (where photographed) and even in Kamchatka. A very remote population exists also on the Canary Islands and Madeira. It must have establish itself quite long ago as the it acquire (contrary to the above said) some differences of subspecies or even species rank ascribed to the local taxon vulcana Godart 1819. Noteworthy, on these islands three other species of this genus exists, Vanessa cardui (Linnaeus, 1758), V. atalanta (Linnaeus, 1758), and V. virginiensis (Drury, 1773), the first and second being cosmopolitan while the latter is an American one.
Range: East and South Asia, and also the Canary Islands and Madeira; migrates actively northwards and appears regularly in SE Siberia (up to Kamchatka).
ssp.: indica (Herbst, 1794); range: the main (eastern) part of the range.
A male; wings closed.
The hill Kuruntei 15 km upstream of the village Nizhnii Tsasuchei, Onon district, Chita Province, S Transbaikalia (Dahuria), Siberia, Russia. 6th July 1996. O. Kosterin.