NOTE: the text corresponds to (Korshunov & Gorbunov, 1995) with additions and corrections (Korshunov, 1996) incorporated; with many of the spelling and other lingustic errors kindly corrected by Dr. Cris Guppy (Quesnel, Canada)
SUPERFAMILY PAPILIONOIDEA Latreille,  (= Rhopalocera Dumeril, 1823)
The butterflies of a large and intermediate size with a great versatility of wing patterns and colourations. White, yellow, or, less frequently, green, brown, or other colours predominate. The anal edge of the hind wing is to some extent concave. All the legs are normally developed and act while walking. The larvae bear an osmeterium, a smelling suction fork, on the first segment.
The world fauna hardly exceeds 550 species; the family ranges all over the world, but the majority of species are confined to tropics. The fauna of the Asian part of Russia includes 22 species.
Large butterflies of bright colouration, hind wings of our species have tails. The pupae have angular prominences on the head and the back of the thorax; they are attached head upwards by tail hooks and a belt of silk thread around the back.
This is a large subfamily including 480 species, the majority of which range in the tropics and subtropics.
TRIBUS TROIDINI Ford, 1944.
GENUS ATROPHANEURA Reakirt,1865].
Type species: Atrophaneura erythrosoma Reakirt,1865].
32 species of the genus range in E and SE Asia and Australia.
50. Atrophaneura alcinous (Klug, 1896).
TYPE LOCALITY: Japan.
RANGE: widely distributed in E. Asia and Japan, the northern part of the range entering the Khasan District in SW Primorye: the valleys of the Amba, El'duga, Sanguga Rivers, the mine Gusevskii Rudnik environs, the Borisovskoe (Shufan) Plateau. Some years temperate populations in the botanical garden of Vladivostok and on the De Vires Peninsula, which soon perish due to winter frosts (V. Dubatolov).
HABITAT: open stands of trees and edges of mixed fir/broad-leafed forests. Imagines feed on the flowers of Sorbaria sorbifolia, Aralia, Lonicera maackii, Padus maackii.
FLIGHT PERIOD: late May/June and July/August, in two broods.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in Japan (Fukuda et al., 1982) and Primorye (Y.N. Glushchenko), the results coincide well. Foodplant: Aristolochia manshuriensis. Eggs: brownish with reddish ribs and a projection on the apex, laid by one to three on the underside of shaded leaves of the foodplant. Larva: dark brownish red with transversal pale bands forming a horseshoe-like pattern on segments 6 and 7 and with several rows of red fleshy tubercles rising from almost black background; keeps to the leaf underside. Pupa: on stems of the foodplant or surrounding vegetation. hibernates. It is covered with dense waxy bloom, cream-yellow with brownish thorax bearing orange spots; the body is strongly bent, the back is humped, the ventral side is incised before the abdomen.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 40-50 mm. The wings are brown-black in males, ash-grey with black veins in females; the hind wing has red submarginal lunules.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: In Russia - subspecies confusus Rothschild, 1905.
TRIBUS PAPILIONINI Latreille,1802]
GENUS PAPILIO Linnaeus, 1758.
Type species: Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758.
F.w.l.: 32-57 mm in our species; wings yellow with black pattern, hind wing with a stretched-out tail.
In a modern content this is a Holarctic genus including 18 species.
51. Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758.
TYPE LOCALITY: Sweden.
RANGE: the non-tropical Eurasia, N. Africa, ? N. America.
HABITAT: meadows of various types, open woodland, river valleys, gardens, etc.; in the mountains inhabits the forest belt but some imagines occur up to the snow-line. In mountain regions the butterflies often keep to barren mountain tops.
FLIGHT PERIOD: in forest-steppe zone from April to August in two broods, in high latitudes and mountains, from the upper forest zone to highlands - in a single brood flying in late June/July.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: First data were published in Russian by I. Porchinskii (1891). Foodplants: Apiaceae (Anethum, Angelica, Chareophylum, Daucus, Heracleum, Ferula, Foeniculum, Libanotis, Pastinaca, Peucedanum, Pimpinella, Prangos, Selinum, Seseli, Thyselinum and others) and also Rutaceae: Ruta graveolens in Europe, Dictamnus dasycarpus and Phellodendron amurensis in the southern Russian Far East (Graeser, 1888; Kurenzov, 1970, and others), Haplophyllum - in steppes and deserts of Central Asia (Kreuzberg, 1984); plants of other families were also reported: Alnus machimoviczii and A. japonica (Betulaceae) - in South Kuriles (Krivolutskaya, 1973), Artemisia (Asteraceae) - in Alaska (Scott, 1986) and the highlands of Central Asia (Kreuzberg, 1984), much less frequently - Lotus corniculata (Fabaceae), Ranunculus acris (Ranunculaceae), Fragaria vesca (Rosaceae), Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae) (Niculescu, 1961; Kreuzberg, 1984). Eggs: hemispherical with fine sculpture, light-yellow, greenish, or yellowish-grey with a reddish-brown tip, later become blueish, laid singly on the foodplant leaves. Young larva: velvety dark with a large white spot of an intricate shape in the middle part of the body, covered with short spinules on reddish warts. These warts become orange and, with each molt, less expressed. In a mature larva there remains only flat orange-yellow spots. Under each spot there is a remainder of a gland which, most probably, secreted a protecting liquid. Only the glands between the head and the prothorax is well developed, being an orange-red osmeterium. Being frightened, the larva rises the fore part of the body and protrudes the fork of osmeterium, which starts to secret a strongly smelling liquid. This gland serves mostly when the larvae of young and intermediate ages. The last instar larva: varies in the ground colour from greenish-yellow to green or blueish-green, and has two black rings on each segment. A wider one bears 6 or 8 red, rarely yellow spots. A narrower ring is usually hidden in the folds between the segments. Some larva don't change coloration with aging and retain a black colour up to pupation. Such larvae continue to protrude the osmeterium until the very pupation as well. The larva pupates on stems of the foodplant or neighbouring grasses or bushed. The pupa has a convex thorax and stout and short "horns" on the head; the colouration depends on the substrate - the summer pupae are yellowish or green in small black dots. The hibernating pupae are usually light-brown with darker fore end and ventral side of the body, with variable blackish pattern, usually occupying ventral side of the thorax, wing cases, apex of the thoracic projection, and two lateral stripes; the horns on the head are rather thick.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 33-50 mm (the imagines of the second brood are greater). The basal area of the fore wing is black with a yellowish suffusion; the hind wing has a wide black band bearing diffuse blue spots. The red spot at the anal angle is not centered with black.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: The butterflies from different regions of Ural, West and Central Siberia, although exhibiting a great individual and seasonal variation, do not show distinct geographic differences and seem to belong to the same subspecies machaon Linnaeus, 1758. Imagines hatched from the hibernated pupae are very similar, whereas the differences of the summer brood butterflies in size and the traits of colouration most probably result from environmental modifications: various temperature regime or other factors. The butterflies from Primorye and Priamurye, known as ssp. ussuriensis Sheljuzhko, 1910 (= amurensis Verity, 1911), are quite similar with the typical ones. The subspecies orientis Verity, 1911 is known from E. Siberia and the mountains of Bureya, which is characterized by a widened black suffusion along the veins and more short tails. From Kamchatka the subspecies kamchadalus Alpheraky, 1897 has been described, which differs from orientis by a paler dark pattern and narrower band on the hind wings. North of Kamchatka, in the Koryak Upland (the settlement Tilichiki) a form occurs which seems to be identical by colouration from an American taxon aliaska Scudder, 1869 (Kurenzov, 1970) (close to kamchadalus), which was recently isolated into an independent species by Eitschberger (1993) on the basis of the egg chorion sculpture. Other subspecies described from the considered territory have no reliable distinguishing characters. The butterflies from the Sakhalin, characterized by an intensive lemon-yellow wing ground colour and, in average, a wider band on the hind wings, were described as the subspecies sachalinensis Matsumura, 1911, similar butterflies from the South Kuriles are known under the name septentrionales Verity, 1911 (= shishimana Matsumura, 1928; = urupensis Bryk, 1942 with the Urup Island as the type locality). Both subspecies are very close to the Japanese hippocrates C. et R. Felder, 1864, which, as the above mentioned aliaska, has been recently isolated by U. Eitschberger (1993) into an independent species.
GENUS SINOPRINCEPS Hancock, 1983.
Type species: Papilio xuthus Linnaeus, 1767
A monotypical East-Asian genus.
52. Sinoprinceps xuthus (Linnaeus, 1767).
TYPE LOCALITY: Middle Priamurye.
RANGE: E Zabaikalye, Priamurye, Primorye, the Sakhalin, the S Kuriles, Mongolia, North-East and Central China, Korea, Japan, the Marian and Hawaii islands. The butterflies are able of far migrations; there is a remarkable report of finding this species at the town Ust'-Ordynsk in Pribaikalye (Ivanov, 1991).
HABITAT: mostly broad-leaved and mixed forests.
FLIGHT PERIOD: late April/June and July/August in two broods.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied first by Graeser (1888), later by others (Kurenzov, Fukuda et al., 1982). Foodplants: Dictamnus dasycarpus, Phellodendron amurense in Primorya and Priamurye; Phellodendron sachalinense - on the Sakhalin; Dictamnus dasycarpus and "Apiaceae" (Kurenzov, 1970) - in Zabaikalye. Besides, the plant Oegle (Cytraceae) was mentioned in Seitz (1909). Eggs: singly on the underside of young leaves of the foodplant. The larva at the early instars: brown with white markings and three large white spots on either side, in general it resembles bird excrement. The mature larva is green with blueish lengthwise stripes going through spiracles and a transversal band of the same colour which isolates the thoracic and abdominal sections of the body. The thoracic segments have an ocelli on either side. The abdominal section has two pairs of slanting blueish bands in its medial part and another pair at the anal segment. The legs and prolegs are yellowish, above them there are oval white spots, small above the thoracic legs and large above the prolegs. The osmeterium is yellowish-orange. Pupa: light- green or brown with marble pattern; its large twin thoracic prominences and abdominal segments are much paler than other parts of the body. Hibernation occurs at the pupal stage.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 32-39 mm (the spring brood) or 47-57 mm (the summer brood). The black basal area of the wings is crossed by yellow lines; the anal red spot on the hind wings contains a black dot.
GENUS ACHILLIDES Hübner,1819].
Type species: Papilio paris Linnaeus, 1758.
The largest butterflies in our fauna: F.w.l.: 37-65 mm. The wings are dark with diffuse bands of brilliant yellow-green or blue-green scales.
Ten species range in E and SE Asia.
53. Achillides bianor (Gramer, 1779).
TYPE LOCALITY: S. China.
RANGE: North-East, Central, and South China, Korea, Japan, in Russia - the southern Sakhalin, the island Kunashir; probably can be found in Primorye to the west and south of Lake Khanka.
HABITAT: deciduous and mixed forests.
FLIGHT PERIOD: July-August, on the Russian islands - in only one brood.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in Japan (Fukuda et al., 1982). Foodplants: Phellodendron sachalinense. Eggs: light-yellow, laid solitarily on the foodplant leaf underside. Young larva: green with whitish specks and spots and light lateral lines going through the spiracles; it bears yellow-green horn-like processes behind the head and at the end of the body; lives in a shelter made up of a leaf. Mature larva: dark with the thoracic part as if covered with a dark-green "umbrella", its edges being suffused with whitish-yellow dots and bearing a black ocellus on either side of the larva. The abdominal part is specked with small light dots and bears blue spots on the back and five pairs of slanting yellowish streaks on the sides; besides, a white streak goes through the spiracles; the osmeterium is long, of brown colour. Pupa: green or brown, angular in shape, its facets are margined with paler colour; the head bears two projections.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 45-53 mm. A contrasted golden band of the fore wing underside does not continue on the hind wing. Similar species: A. maackii.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: On Russian islands the subspecies dehaani C. et R. Felder, 1864 (= paradoxa Nakahara, 1924; = doii Matsumura, 1928) ranges.
54. Achillides maackii (Ménétriés, 1859).
TYPE LOCALITY: the Amur.
RANGE: E Zabaikalye, Primorye, Priamurye, Sakhalin, the South Kuriles, NE China, Korea, Japan.
HABITAT: various forests, from montane coniferous/broad-leafed mixed forests to bushy open woodland. The maximum abundance is achieved in multidominate broad-leaved forests. In spring the imagines actively feed on the flowers of Malus and Padus, and also on Corydalis, in summer - mostly on bushes as well of the Rosaceae family, often on lilys. In cool weather the imagines keep to the tree canopy, in hot weather they congregate on wet ground. They are also attracted by any decaying organic matter.
FLIGHT PERIOD: in two broods. The small butterflies of the first brood (f. raddei Bremer) fly from April to late July. The summer butterflies, flying from middle July to the middle September, are almost twice as large. In montane forests of Primorye and Middle Priamurye there occurs a form f. minima Kardakov, which is trophically connected with Dictamnus dasycarpus and gives only a single brood.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Phellodendron amurense (Graeser, 1888), P. sachalinense; in forest-steppe habitats and the montane taiga altitudinal belt - also Dictamnus dasycarpus. Eggs: yellowish-white or light-green, laid singly mostly on the foodplant young leaf underside. Young larva: green with white spots of diverse sizes and a white head, by the data of E. Novomodnyi it is dark-grey with a transversal band ; it keeps to the leaf upperside. Mature larva: resembles that of A. bianor differing by a concave prominence on the ninth segment. Pupa: similar to that of A. bianor as well, but shape is more smooth and the head projections are more rounded.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 36-43 mm (spring brood, f. raddei Bremer); 44-53 mm (f. minima Kardakov); 52-68 mm (summer brood). The band of golden scales on the fore wing underside continues on the hind wing, as different from the similar species A. bianor.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: the continent is inhabited by the nominotypical subspecies. The Kurile islands and the southern Sakhalin are inhabited by ssp. tutanus Fenton in Butler, 1881 (= kurilensis Matsumura, 1928).
ETYMOLOGY: Richard Karlovich Maack (1825-1886), a Russian explorer of the Far East, a naturalist, ethnographist and pedagogue.
TRIBUS LEPTOCIRCINI Kirby, 1896.
GENUS IPHICLIDES Hübner, 1819.
Type species: Papilio podalirius Linnaeus, 1758.
A Palearctic genus with four species.
55. Iphiclides podalirius (Linnaeus, 1758). (= sinon Poda, 1761)
TYPE LOCALITY: Italy: Toscana, Livorno (Opin. Decl. int. Comn. zool. Nom., 1954, 5: 329-342).
RANGE: Europe, Anterior and Central Asia, S Ural, E. Kazakhstan, the south of W. Siberia: Zauralye (known north to the village Kaskara in the Tyumen District (Sitnikov, 1996)) and the Itrysh River basin south of Omsk. The butterflies are capable of active migrations, findings being reported from the environs of Barnaul (Wnukowsky, Ermolajev, 1935) and Krasnoyarsk (Kondakov, Baranchikov, 1975), and the village Kostenkovo (Gubskaya et al., 1964) and the Kondoma River (T.N. Gagina, pers. comm.) in the southern Kemerovo Region. Although being quite numerous in S Ural and W Altai, these butterflies are extremely scarce in W Siberia.
HABITAT: deciduous and mixed forests, groves, bushy slopes, wind-break strips, glades, orchards of Rosaceae fruits. The imagines were observed to feed on Chamaecytisus ruthenicus, Viburnum opulus, Lonicera altaica, Dracocephalum nutans, etc.
FLIGHT PERIOD: May/June and July/August, in two brood.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in Europe (Eckstein, 1913; Ebert, 1991). Foodplants: arboreal and frutescent Rosaceae: Cerasus, Amygdalus, Prunus, Padus, Crataegus, Malus, Sorbus. Eggs: hemispheric, with a fine reticulate structure, dark with two light-yellow rings and with reddish apices, about 1.5 mm in diameter; laid mostly singly on leaf underside. The first instar larva: dark with two small and two larger green spots on the back, it rests on a peculiar silk cushion spun on a leaf surface, feeds at night and early in the morning. The last instar larva: stout, green with yellowish back and spiracular stripes and slanting lines of the same colour on either side of each segment, with reddish-brown dots scattered over the body; the spiracles are reddish. Before pupation the larva becomes yellow. Pupa: yellowish, brown, less frequently green; it is fasten with a silk belt; hibernation occurs on the pupa stage.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 34-44 mm. The wings are pale yellow with slanting tapering black stripes; the hind wings bear a long and narrow tale.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: The butterflies from S Ural and the Omsk Region are close to ssp. podalirius (?= flaccidus Krulikowsky, 1908, with the type locality Vyatka and Kazan'). The specimens from W Altai fit to the description of centralasiae K. von Rosen, 1929 from the mountains at the town Dzharkent (SE Kazakhstan, the Ili valley).
F.w.l. 23-35 mm. The wings are of yellow tones with an intricate pattern made up of black, red or, less frequently, blue spots. The larvae feed on Aristolochiaceae plants. The pupae are attached with a silken belt, hibernate.
This is a small subfamily including six genera and about 15 species which mostly inhabit South Europe, Anterior and East Asia.
TRIBUS ZERINTHIINAE Grote, 1899.
GENUS LUEHDORFIA Cruger, 1878.
Type species: Luehdorfia eximia Cruger, 1878.
An East-Asiatic genus with three species.
56. Luehdorfia puziloi (Ershov, 1872).
TYPE LOCALITY: Primorye: Vladivostok.
RANGE: Primorye north to the Bikin River basin (the Svetlovodnaya River, N. Balatsky, 1996, pers. comm.), North-East and East China, Korea, Japan, indicated also for the Kunashir (Klitin, 1989).
HABITAT: meadow patches mostly in montane mixed and valley broad-leaved forests, quite a common species. The imagines were observed to feed on Chrysasplenium alternifolium, Viola, Rhododendron dauricum, Padus, Malus.
FLIGHT PERIOD: middle April/late May, in the mountains the flight is prolonged to late June/early July (Kurenzov, 1970).
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in Primorye (Glushchenko, Sasova, 1994). Foodplant: Asarum sieboldi; on the Kunashir a probable foodplant is Asarum heterotroides. Eggs: small, greenish-nacreous, laid in batches varying from several to 30-40 eggs on the foodplant leaf underside. The larvae hatch in late May, live in groups, have four molts and pupate on 38-48th day on the ground beneath the leaf fall. Young larvae: black with light specks on the back of each segments, gregarious. Mature larva: brownish-violet with bunches of long hairs at the legs and prolegs, which are longer at both ends of the body, and conspicuous roundish yellow spots at the spiracles; on the ventral side the segment joints are light; the ventral side of the body is blueish-white; the osmeterium is orange. Pupa: with knobby surface and with alternating dark and brownish spots, there is a dark area in the middle part of the body; it hibernates.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 22-27 mm. The wings are yellow with the pattern consisting of slanting bands of different shape; the hind wing with a submarginal row of blue spots and two red spots at the anal angle; the tail is short.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: the Russian territory is inhabited by ssp. puziloi; we weren't able to study specimens from the Kunashir.
ETYMOLOGY: Mikhail Pavlovich Puzilo - a naturalist and lepidopterologist, collected butterflies at Irkutsk and Primorye in 20ths years of XIX century.
TRIBUS SERICINI Dujardin, 1965.
GENUS SERICINUS Westwood, 1851.
Type species: Papilio telamon Donovan, 1798.
A monotypical East-Asiatic genus.
57. Sericinus montela (Gray, 1852) (= telamon auct.)
TYPE LOCALITY: China.
RANGE: S Primorye, North-East and Central China, Korea, Japan.
HABITAT: forest meadows and bush thickets in river valleys, the lower parts of rocky mountain slopes. Females emerge earlier than males, they are hidden in the herbaceous vegetation and get into the air only for mating and search for the larval foodplant for oviposition. Males exhibit a well expressed territorial behaviour.
FLIGHT PERIOD: the first brood: May/early June; the second brood: middle July/early August; in late August/September a small number of the third brood imagines can be observed.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in Primorye (Monastyrsky, Kotlobai, 1993). Foodplant: Aristolochia contorta. Eggs: small, at first light-yellow, a day after they acquire a greenish tint and a dark spot on the apex; they are laid in batches by 8-100 on the leaf underside, petioles or stems of the foodplant. Young larvae: dark with light spots on the back, live in groups on leaf underside and eat only mesophyll of a leaf leaving the veins intact. Mature larva: black with five rows of pale-orange processes, the two processes on the 1st segment are longer than others and directed forward; lives solitarily, can be found among the leaf fall. Pupa: brown with acute projections; hibernates. It is attached to the leaf underside with a thin cincture of silk threads which tears easily by motion of disturbed pupa. It was found out that hibernating pupae of a corresponding brood differ by summer pupae by hook-like spines on the abdomen. Soon after pupation, as soon as a pupa gets exposed to the sunlight it moves actively, tears the cincture and deepens into the leaf fall.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 24-30 mm (the spring brood) or 29-36 mm (the summer brood), the size of the autumn brood imagines approach that of the spring one. Males: pale yellow with black spots; females: brown with yellow bands; both sexes have an interrupted postdiscoidal row of oblong red spots on the hind wing, there are also blue spots at the base of a long and narrow tail. There exists a seasonal variation of the tail length: they are shorter in the spring brood than in the following broods.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: In Russia there ranges the subspecies amurensis Staudinger, 1892.
TRIBUS ZERYNTHINI Grote, 1899.
GENUS ZERYNTHIA Ochenheimer, 1816.
Type species: Papilio hypsipyle Fabricius, 1777.
An West-Palearctic genus with two species.
58. Zerynthia polyxena Denis et Schiffermuller, 1775.
TYPE LOCALITY: Austria.
RANGE: S Europe, Anterior Asia, NW Kazakhstan (the Mugodzhary Mts.), S Ural (the valley of the Ural River downstream of Magnitogorsk). A local species.
HABITAT: in Asian Russia: edges of damp forests in steppe ravines, the willow and alder riparian woods.
FLIGHT PERIOD: middle April/middle May.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in European Russia (Y. Berezhnoi, O. Koptelov). Foodplant: Aristolochia clematilis. Eggs: spherical, at first yellow, later become reddish; laid usually by one - three on the foodplant leaves. Young larvae are dark, they live in the flower buds feeding on the generative organs of the plant. The last instar larva: pinkish, yellowish-brown or greenish-yellow with five lengthwise rows of fleshy outgrowings of brownish-red colour, besides, each segment bears 5-7 black warts; pupates in late June/early July. Pupa: brownish, of a peculiar conical shape; found on plant stems with a silk thread going from a pointed head to the substrate, but after hibernation occurs in litter.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 2-28 mm. The wings are yellow with a complicated pattern of black spots and dentate lines; on the hind wing there is a row of red spots proximally of the dentate band.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: ssp. thesto Fruhstorfer, 1908 was described from the Saratov environs (the Volga basin).
SUBFAMILIA PARNASSIINAE Duponcgel,1835].
TRIBUS PARNASSIINI Duponchel,1835]
The tribe corresponds to the former genus Parnassius, which is now split into ten genera.
The butterflies of a large or intermediate size with hard semitransparent wings of a smooth outline, with partially reduced scale cover. Females are usually darker than males, with a heavier black pattern. Their abdomen is much less hairy and after mating bears beneath its end the so-called sphragis, a pouch-like structure secreted by a male which prevents further copulation (cases were reported when the sphragis was found on the abdomen of males). These butterflies vary substantially both individually and geographically, their populations being local. The generation lasts for one or two years. The larvae are dark with contrast light spots or streaks, poorly set with short hairs; they feed mostly (in Russia - entirely) on either Crassulaceae or Fumariaceae. The smooth and stout pupae with the head pointed are hidden in loose silk shelters on the ground among detritus or plant litter. In sunny weather the males fly low above the herbage by a peculiar, slow and partly soaring, mode, the females are less active. Being disturbed, the butterflies usually get into a peculiar threatening pose and make a scratching sound by rubbing the hind legs against the under surface of the wings.
The tribe ranges in Eurasia and North America and includes up to 50 species, the majority of which being confined to mountains of Asia.
GENUS PARNASSIUS Latreille, 1804.
Type species: Papilio apollo Linnaeus, 1758.
F.w.l.: 28-58 mm; the wings are white, the pattern consists of black spots and semitransparent bands, the hind wing base has red spots. The larvae feed on Crassulaceae.
A Holarctic genus with 14 species.
[58.1]. Parnassius apollonius Eversmann, 1847.
TYPE LOCALITY: "promontoris Altaicus australibus" ["in front of the South Altai Mountains"], most probably the Dzhungarian Alatau or Tarbagatai Mts.
RANGE: The mountains and hills of Central Asia and Kazakhstan (except for the western and desert areas): the Tarbagatai, Saur, Dzhungarian Alatau, Tien Shan and Pamiro-Alai Mts. The species is reported from the regions adjacent to Russian frontier, namely, the surroundings of the settlement Semiozernoe in the Kustanay region (Aybasov, Zhdanko, 1982), in the Ishim valley at the village Zapadnoe in the Kokchetav Region, and in the Kazakhstan part of the Altai Mts.: on the Narymskiy and Kurchumskiy mountain ranges (Lukhtanov, Lukhtanov, 1987) (where it was found in June on steppefied southern clay slopes at 200-600 m above sea level) and at Lake Zaissan (Lavrov, 1930) Within the borders or Russia the species still has not been found.
HABITAT: in W Altai: sunny rocky slopes of mountain piedmonts at the altitudes of 400-1000 m above sea level; in the Kokchetav Region: steppes on hill slopes and river terraces.
FLIGHT PERIOD: in NE Kazakhstan: middle May/middle June; on the Ishim River the butterflies were collected on 17th July 1997 (Kreuzberg, 1979).
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Crassulaceae: Pseudosedum lievenii in W Altai (Lukhtanov, Lukhtanov, 1994), Rosularia spp., Rhodiola linearifolia, Sedum alberti were recorded (Kreuzberg, 1987), of which Pseudosedum lievenii and Sedum alberti might penetrate into the Russian territory. Larva: black with two bright-red spots on either side of each segment (Seitz, 1907).
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 37-45 mm. The black marking consists of small clear-cut spots; a full submarginal row of them on each wing is characteristic; in both sexes there are 5-7 red spots on both the fore and hind wing.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: ssp. apollonius inhabits W Altai, Tarbagatai and Saur Mts; by the materials from the Kokchetav Region the subspecies alice Kreuzberg, 1989 has been described as differing by an on average smaller size, smaller red spots and narrower marginal bands.
59. Parnassius bremeri Felder in Bremer, 1864.
TYPE LOCALITY: "the Amur bank" - by the lectotype (Tschikolovets, 1993)
RANGE: Zabaikalye (the Chikoi River basin and Chita environs), Priamurye, Primorye, the Kunashir, NE China, N Korea, Hokkaido. A local species.
HABITAT: steppefied rough south-exposed slopes, rocks within the forest belt. In Primorye the butterflies especially actively visit the flowers of Lilium, the bright pollen of which make their wing bases red or brown.
FLIGHT PERIOD: depending on locality, from late May to the end of July. On the Kunashir the imagines were recorded at the end of July.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in Priamurye (Graeser, 1888). Foodplants: Sedum aizoon, S. ussuriensis, S. ischida (Kurenzov, 1970). Larva: resembles that of P. phoebus but narrower, with numerous sulphur-yellow dots; the rims of the spiracles and the osmeterium are light-yellow. According to Y. Berezhnoi's observations, eggs and about 5-8% young larvae hibernate; pupation occurs in late May, but caterpillars from South Sikhote-Alin in captivity hibernated second time.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 36-42 mm. The veins are accompanied by black scales, especially at the outer margin. The red spots on the hind wing usually are not centered with white. The antenna trunk is black (except for ssp. amgunensis). Similar species: P. phoebus.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: well expressed. The butterflies from the lowland Middle Priamurye represent ssp. bremeri Felder in Bremer, 1864, from W Primorye - ssp. conjuctus Staudinger, 1901. Both subspecies are characterized by a distinct pattern with contrasted veins and wide black rims of the red spots on the hind wings. The butterflies from Primorye differ from those of Middle Priamurye by somewhat more elongate wings. The subspecies jaetensis O. Bang-Haas, 1927 was reported for the basins of the river Chikoi and the surroundings of Chita; ssp. graeseri Honrath, 1885 - for Upper Priamurye, orotschonicus O. Bang- Haas, 1927 - for the Sikhote-Alin Mts. In the Amur River lower flow the subspecies amgunensis Sheljuzhko, 1928 ranges, which is characterized by not distinct veins and a chequered trunk of the antennae, this form resemble both P. bremeri and P. phoebus and might be the result of their intergradation (V.V. Dubatolov) ; ssp. nipponus Kreuzberg, 1992 was described from the Kunashir.
ETYMOLOGY: Otto Vasilyevich Bremer (18..-1873) - a Russian lepidopterologist.
60. Parnassius phoebus Fabricius, 1793.
TYPE LOCALITY: "Sibiria"; Altai: Ongudai - by the neotype.
RANGE: The Alps, the Ural Mts. (except for the south), the mountains of Siberia and the northern Far East (including the extreme North), Mongolia, N. China, the mountains of western North America (Alaska, Colorado, California); recorded also in the lower Amur and on the Sakhalin.
HABITAT: highland and, partly, forest herb meadows, mountain tundras (in polar and subpolar regions), montane meadow steppes (Zabaikalye, E Yakutia). In the mountains of South Siberia the species is most numerous in the transitional zone between subalpine and alpine meadows (1800-2200 m above sea level); in the forest belt these butterflies occur usually at rock outcrops accompanying by meadow patches (Kosterin, 1994). The butterflies often visit flowers of Aster, Scorzonera, Sajania monstrosa, Valeriana, Origanum, Allium, and other conspicuous flowers.
FLIGHT PERIOD: in Siberia: mostly July/middle August, on the plateaus of E Yakutia: from middle June; in Subpolar Uralpolar: middle July/late August.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Rhodiola (in the Altai Mts. (O. Kosterin), the Putorana Plateau (I.S. Zakharzhevskii), Sedum (in the forest belt of the Altai Mts. (Y. Berezhnoi), beyond there were also recorded Sempervivum and Saxifraga, Kurenzov (1970) reported Saxifraga unalashkensis and S. nivalis for the mountains of the Far East. Eggs: hemispheric with a fine grain structure, white with a brown spot and a brown ring on the top. The larva (according to the observation made in Ural by A.G. Tatarinov) hibernates soon after hatching from the egg. It feed in warm weather both at daytime and at night; in cold weather it is usually situated rolled up on the foodplant. It is black with two small orange spots and an orange dot between them on either side of each segment except for segments 1 and 2; on segment 1 there is one spot on either side, on segment 2 - two spots. Besides, each segment bears three warts: one on the back and one on either side (some individuals may have also two rows of small red spots along the back). Its maximum length is 45-47 mm. A teneral pupa is of pale sandy colour but later darkens to chocolate.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 27-39 mm. As different from P. bremeri, the veins are brown and inconspicuous, the antenna trunk is chequered; the red spots on the hind wings usually are centered with white. As different from Driopa clarius, there are basal red spots on the hind wing underside.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: well expressed. The subspecies phoebus Fabricius, 1793 (= altaica Ménétriés, 1859; = alpestris Verity, 1911) is known for Altai Mts.; ssp. sedakovii Ménétriés in Siemashko, 1850 (= fortuna A. Bang-Haas, 1912; amalthea Bryk et Eisner, 1931) - for the Sayans and the mountains of Pribaikalye (described from the Irkutsk environs). A larger subspecies uralensis Kirby, 1871, inhabiting Ural (from Middle to Polar) has enlarged red spots and enlarged marginal and submarginal bands in females. E Siberia and Chukotka are inhabited by the subspecies interpositus Herz, 1903 (type locality: Verkhoyansk environs), differing by a reduction of the dark pattern and a complete absence of the submarginal spots on the hind wings in males. Representatives of this subspecies from some regions of NE Yakutia are remarkable for a very large size. The Kamchatian subspecies corybas Fischer von Waldheim, 1824 (= intermedia Ménétriés in Siemashko, 1850) differs by somewhat narrower wings and the red spots beinh larger than in interpositus. Similar butterflies fly in the coastal regions of the Magadan Region.
61. Parnassius nomion Fischer von Waldheim, 1823.
TYPE LOCALITY: Dauria.
RANGE: The mountains of South Siberia, the south of the Far East, Mongolia, N and NE China, Korea, reported also for Alaska, Hokkaido. Its report for Polar and Middle Ural (Kuznetsov, 1925; Kreuzberg et Pljushch, 1992) most probably was erroneous. In South Siberia this is quite a common species.
HABITAT: In the mountains of S Siberia: open steppefied southern slopes within the forest-steppe and forest belts up to the altitude of 2400 m (in Tuva), on piedmont plains this species is found on steppefied bluffs of river banks. In Zabaikalye: also meadow steppes with the dominance of Filifolium sibiricum, pine and larch forest-steppe. In Priamurye: dry meadows on river terraces, larch moorlands. The butterflies feed on the flowers of different plants, in Altai they most frequently was Scabiosa ochroleuca, Goniolimon speciosum, Seseli libanotis, Agrimonia pilosa, Crepis sibirica, Tanacetum vulgare, Achillea milifolium, Solidago virga-aurea Origanum vulgare, Valeriana transjeniseiensis, Lysimachia vulgaris, etc.
FLIGHT PERIOD: the second half of June/August.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied by Graeser (1888) and, later, by Y.P. Korshunov in the West Sayan and others.. Foodplants: Crassulaceae: Orostachys spinosa, Sedum hybridum, S. aizoon. Eggs: whitish; laid on stems or leaves of the foodplant or on the ground near it, where young larvae hibernate after hatching. Mature larva (according to a description by O.E. Kosterin and O.G. Berezina in SE Zabaikalye East ): velvety black; each segment at its hind margin bears six small red spots, by 3 on either side. On 2nd and 3rd thoracic segments on either side there are added another red spots, in front of the upper spot at the hind margin, and a red lengthwise dash in front of the second upper spot at the hind margin. The 1st thoracic segment bears only four red spots at its hind margin and another pair of red spots in front of the outer pair of the latters. In SE Zabaikalye there was found also a specimen in which an additional pair of red spots in front of the upper pair of thise at the hind margin was added on all segments, not only on 2nd and 3rd. According to Graeser (1888), the larvae collected at the Argun and Shilka River junction had very dense short yellowish hairs on their sides, each segment had four small red spots pointed forward, the head was mate-black with glossy light-brown strokes on the fore surface; the osmeterium is reddish-yellow. The larva pupates on the ground in the vicinity of the foodplant in a loose silken "net" with irregular cells about 2-3 mm in size. Duration of the pronympha stage varies from 3-5 to 10 days. Pupa: smooth, brownish-grey with a glaucous waxy bloom, the wing cases are covered with a fine marble pattern, its stage lasts for 20-35 days depending on aerial temperature. Young imagines hatch at the first half of the day, mostly early in the morning.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 39-44 mm (28 mm in the case of ssp. dis). The pattern consists of large spots and contrasted bands, as different from P. apollo, at the ends of the veins the wing margins are marked with black strokes or spots and so looks chequered. Two large round red spots on the hind wing upperside are usually centered with white, and the red spot at the base is distinct; red spots usually present also on the fore wing. The sexual dimorphism is poorly expressed.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: In Altai and West Sayan Mts. and Tuva there ranges ssp. korshunovi Kreuzberg et Pljushch, 1992 (type locality: Altai Mts., the Iolgo mt. range, Karakol'skie Lakes); in the East Sayan and Pribaikalye - ssp. dis Grum-Grshimailo, 1890 (= nominulus Staudinger, 1895), differing by a suffusion of dark scales on both sides and dentition of the submarginal band on the fore wings. The subspecies nomion Fischer von Waldheim, 1823, inhabiting Zabaykalye, is somewhat larger than the former and has a considerable suffusion of yellow scales. Large butterflies from Primorya and Priamurye, known as ssp. mandschuriae Oberthur, 1891, are characterized by relatively wider wings without suffusion of dark scales.
62. Parnassius apollo Linnaeus, 1758.
TYPE LOCALITY: Sweden.
RANGE: Europe, Anterior Asia, S Ural, S Siberia eastwards to Central Yakutia and Zabaikalye, the mountains of E Kazakhstan, Tien Shan, Mongolia. A local species.
HABITAT: herb meadows in river valleys, at birch grove edges, and in open pine-forests. In the mountains of South Siberia the species reaches the alpine zone but is much more frequent on open slopes in the lower part of the forest belt. The imagines actively feed on the flowers of Filipendula vulgare, Valeriana officinale, Aster alpinus, Leucanthemum vulgare, Cirsium heterophyllum, Senecio nemorense, Crepis sibirica, Allium nutans, and other brightly flowering plants.
FLIGHT PERIOD: middle June/late July. According to observations of Yu. Shevnin in Middle Ural made in captivity, some of the eggs laid in late June/early July produce larvae after 2 - 4 weeks. These larvae grow rapidly and the butterflies appear at the end of July. However, the second brood was never observed in Nature.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Sedum, including such Siberian species as S. telephium, S. acre, S. hybridum, S. aizoon, S. ewersii, sometimes Orostachys spinosa (W Altai). Eggs (by observations of Y. Korshunov in altai and the Novosibirsk Region): smooth, button-shaped, apically with a hollow, white, glossy, laid on the foodplant stems and leaves on near. One female lays 80-100 eggs. The young larvae hibernate soon after hatching or inside the egg. They emerge in spring when some snow patches still remain and fresh Sedum sprouts have just appeared. The young larvae are gregarious, in cold weather gathering into tangles in wet places. They are black with a row of whitish spots on either side, with warts and bunches of long black hairs. Mature larva: up to 50 mm in length; velvety black; each segment bears ten blueish-grey warts; there is a row of red or orange spots on either side: on the segments 4-12 it is represented on by a large spot at the hind margin of the segment and a smaller one in front of it, on 1st segment by two large spots of similar size, on segments 2-3 by three spots, on the last segment - by one spot. Yellow or orange spiracles are surrounded by blueish dots. The osmeterium is yellowish. The larva feeds only at bright sunshine. Pupa: stout and obtuse, 18-24 mm in length; at first it is light-brown with dark-brown spiracles and yellowish spots above them; a day after pupation it darken and acquire a blue waxy bloom (less expressed in he pupae from W Altai). At the temperature of 22 degrees Centigrade the pupal stage lasts for 12-16 days or little more. The imagines often mate just after hatching from the pupa, as in the case of Aporia crataegi. In just hatched imagines the wing have a yellowish tint.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 33-58 mm (the largest species of Parnassiini). The fore wing has five large black spots; the hind wing upperside has two large red spots, while the red spot at the base is not seen; as different from P. nomion, the fringe is without markings. The sexual dimorphism is well expressed.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: well expressed. Ssp. democratus Krulikowsky, 1906, described from the Kazan environs, was reported for Middle Ural. (We have similar specimens also from the western slopes of Polar Ural. These are such butterflies which were reported as P. nomion in the works of K.F. Sedykh (1974 and others)). The butterflies from S Ural differ by larger size and yellowish tint of the wings in females and are known as the subspecies limicola Stichel, 1907 (pro uralensis Oberthur, 1891; type locality: "Ural"). The southern West Siberian Lowland are inhabited by the largest subspecies meinhardi Sheljuzhko, 1924 (type locality: Petropavlovsk), characterized by a milky-white ground colour, with very scarce black scales in females, and large black and red spots. The Altai subspecies alpherakyi Krulikovskyi, 1906 is smaller, have a substantial suffusion of yellow scales in both sexes and a greatly expressed sexual dimorphism, as the wing ground colour in females is heavily suffused by black scales. The subspecies hesebolus Nordmann, 1851 (= sibiricus Nordmann, 1851; = pseudosibiricus Bryk et Eisner, 1938) ranging east of the Altai Mts. in Siberia and Mongolia (to Zabaikalye and Central Yakutia) and is characterized by a clear white ground colour, relatively small black and red spots, and somewhat angular wing shape.
GENUS DRIOPA Korshunov, 1988.
Type species: Papilio mnemosyne Linnaeus, 1758.
F.w.l.: 23-39 mm. The wings are white or yellow; the red spots present on the hind wing only or absent. The antenna trunk is black. Larval foodplants: Fumariaceae.
A Holarctic genus with 10 species.
63. Driopa mnemosyne (Linnaeus, 1758).
TYPE LOCALITY: S Finland.
RANGE: Europe, Anterior and Central Asia, Middle and South Ural, the western West Siberian Lowland (the Tyumen' Region, NE of Tobol'sk); locally.
HABITAT: meadows in the montane forest belt, edges of forest-steppe groves, montane oak woods, or forests in steppe ravines, herbaceous steppefied slopes.
FLIGHT PERIOD: in the Orenburg Region: middle May/middle June; in Middle Ural: June; in N Ural: the first half of July.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in Europe (Eckstein, 1913; Seitz, 1907; etc.) and Middle Ural by P.Y. Gorbunov. Foodplants.: Corydalis solida, C. capnoides, from other regions there were reported also C. bulbosa, C. intermedia, C. marschalliana. Eggs: white or fawn-coloured, spheric but flattened underneath, with a grainy sculpture and a tiny dent on the apex; laid by one or two on foodplant leaves or stems. Mature larva: up to 42 mm in length, greyish-black, set with short black hairs; on either side of each segment there are a roundish orange- yellow spot, which is bordered above with an adjacent black crescent- shaped spot, and a small orange-yellow dot behind it; on segments 2 and 3 there are two spots; segment 1 has a wide spot on the back; the back of each abdominal segment bears a black dot; the osmeterium is yellow. The larva feeds since early spring in sunny weather. The pupa is at first light-brown with a row of light-yellow spots on either side, later acquire an even dark-brown colour. The stage of the pupa lasts for about fortnight.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 24-35 mm. The fore wing has wide semitransparent marginal area tapering to the inner angle. The cell contains two black spots; the red spots are absent.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: South Ural is inhabited by ssp. uralca Bryk, 921, characterized by a large size, rounded clear-cut spots in the cell, and a wide greyish marginal band. The butterflies from Middle Ural are often attributed to ssp. ugrumovi Bryk, 1914, described from Elabuga (Tatarstan). They have less clear-cut cell spots in males , and a more even inner edge of the marginal band, which reaches the anal angle of the wing. The butterflies from North Ural differ much both from ssp. ugrumovi and ssp. timanica (Eisner et Sedych, 1964), described from the Ukhta environs. All the specimens collected by A.G. Tatarinov in the Pechoro-Ilychskiy nature reserve had a strong dark suffusion and diffuse cell spots in both sexes). From the sites north-east of Tobol'sk the taxon tjumensis Kreuzberg, 1989, is described, which generally is very close to ugrumov and may be its synonym.
"Parnassius mnemosyne" was reported by L.Suvortsev (1894) for W. Altai (the surroundings of Lake Zaissan and the southern slopes of the Narymskiy mountain range). More recent observations from Altai are missing, most probably, that report in fact was based on Driopa stubbendorfii females.
64. Driopa stubbendorfii (Ménétriés, 1849).
TYPE LOCALITY: the mountains southwards of the town Kansk.
RANGE: the mountains and adjacent lowlands of South Siberia, eastwards from the upper Ob' River (Tomsk, the Toguchin, Iskitim, and Maslyanino Districts of the Novosibirsk Region), NE Kazakhstan (Altai Mts. only), the south of the Far East, the Ochot coast (Ayan, the Koni Peninsula, the surroundings of settlement Ola), ? the Sakhalin, Mongolia, NE China, Korea.
HABITAT: long-forb meadows, most frequently in river valleys, in South Siberia up to 2200 m above sea level. The imagines visit flowers of Ranunculus acris, Hesperis sibirica, Fragaria vesca, Malus baccata (in Primorye), Vicia cracca, Pedicularis incarnata, Taraxacum officinale, Aster alpinus, Senecio tundricola (the Magadan Region), Lilium martagon, or for a long time sit on large leaves of herbs and bushes.
FLIGHT PERIOD: in the piedmonts of W Altai and in S Primorye: late May/July; in most mountains of S Siberia: middle June/July; in the Magadan Region: middle July/August.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: first described by Graeser (1888). Foodplants: Corydalis, including C. bracteata, C. pauciflora, C. gigantea, C. ambigua, C. pallida, C. remota. Eggs: hemispheric, with a fine cell sculpture, white, later become yellowish or greenish. The larvae hatch in spring. Larva (according to observations by O.E. Kosterin in the Novosibirsk Region): brown with two lengthwise light-yellow dorso- lateral streaks; between them each segment has a pair of triangular black spots, one side of which is adjacent or almost adjacent to the fore edge of a segment and one side - to the yellow streak, and, in the middle, a black V-shaped chevron, outlined externally with fine yellowish striae, the apex of which touches the fore margin of the segment; besides, each segment on either side bears two lengthwise skin folds: one just above the legs and prolegs and one, slightly slanting, above it, the latter being greyish in colour; the head is dark-brown; the osmeterium is yellowish-white, almost transparent (Graeser, 1888). The larvae feed at the evening or night. Pupation occurs on the ground in a white frail cocoon in litter or under stones.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 24-32 mm. The wings have transparent areas and contrasted black veins; red or large black spots are absent, in females there may be diffuse dark spots in the cell of the fore wing, in the males from the Magadan Region the cell contains contrasted small black spots. In male genitalia viewed laterally the uncus narrows gradually (Table...). Similar species: D. hoenei.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: in S Siberia is expressed in lightening of the ground colour in females and developing of the discal spots on the fore wing in eastward direction. These spots are most clear-cut in the butterflies of the Magadan Region and are largest in the specimens of Priamurye and Primorye. Subspecies: typicus Bryk, 1914: Altai and SW of West Siberia; stubbendorfii Ménétriés, 1849: the Sayans; bodemeyeri Bryk, 1914: Zabaikalye and Priamurye (except for the Amur lower reaches); standfussi Bryk, 1914: the lower Amur; siegfriedi Bryk, 1914: Primorye; kosterini Kreuzberg et Pljushch, 1992: the Magadan Region..
ETYMOLOGY: Y.P. Stubbendorf - a Russian naturalist and ethnographist, a governor of the Yakutsk Province in 50-60ths of XIX century, in 40ths he explored the basins of the Kan, Biryusa, Uda, and Oka Rivers.
65. Driopa hoenei (Schweitzer, 1912) (= stubbendorfii auct.).
TYPE LOCALITY: Japan: Hokkaido.
RANGE: The Sakhalin, S Kuriles, Japan.
HABITAT: meadow patches, forest openings, river valleys.
FLIGHT PERIOD: middle June/late July.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in Japan (Fukuda et al., 1982). Foodplants: Corydalis ambigua, C. pallida. Eggs: yellowish-white with numerous tiny dents, laid singly or by small groups on withered leaves and twigs in the vicinity of the foodplant; hibernate. Larva: brown or greyish with pale interrupted lateral streaks margined by darker lunules; on the back of each segment there is a black V-shaped stroke with yellowish margin. Pupa: light-brown, found in a frail cocoon in litter.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: 28-31 mm, much resembles that of P. stubbendorfii, but dark spots in fore wing cell are more developed. The reliable identification is possible by the male genitalia where the uncus, viewed laterally, is narrowed abruptly at the medial part (Table...).
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: Subspecies: esaki Nakahara, 1926: the Sakhalin; doii Matsumura, 1928: the S Kuriles, it differs from esaki by black spots in the cell in males and on average darker females.
superspecies eversmanni (Ménétriés in Siemaschko, 1850).
F.w.l.: 23-39 mm. The wing ground colour in males is bright- or pale-yellow, in females whitish. The pattern of greyish bands and spots cover the entire wing surface, distinct black spots are absent, the hind wing bears 2-3 red spots; on the hind wing underside there are red spots at the base.
66. Driopa (eversmanni) eversmanni (Ménétriés in Siemaschko, 1850).
TYPE LOCALITY: S Siberia: the mountains south of the town Kansk.
RANGE: The mountains of South and East Siberia and the Far East (except for Primorye), Mongolia, the Shantar Islands, Japan, Alaska.
HABITAT: meadows in the alpine zone and the upper part of the montane forest belt, detritus, meadow, or dwarf-birch montane tundras.
FLIGHT PERIOD: middle June/August.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Corydalis, including C. pauciflora in Altai (Kreuzberg, 1987), C. paeonfolia and C. gorodkovi in E Yakutia (Y.N. Glushchenko); Dicentra was also recorded. A biennial species. Eggs: pinkish, later become white; laid singly on the stones, ground, or litter at the foodplants, hibernate. The young larva is dark; the mature larva is dark-brown with a row of yellowish spots on the back and lateral lines of the same colour, set with tiny hairs; it pupates in a frail silk shelter under stones or in the leaf fall. Pupa: reddish-brown, covered with tiny knobs.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 23-31 mm. The wings are bright-yellow in males, white with yellowish tint in females, the greyish semitransparent bands are wider than in D. litoreus and D. felderi.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: in the most part of Siberia is weakly expressed. In Zabaikalye and E Siberia there ranges the subspecies vosnesenskii Ménétriés, 1850 (= magadana D. Weiss, 1971). The extreme North of E. Siberia and in Chukotka are inhabited by the subspecies polaris Shulte, 1991 described from Alaska, which is very close to the small thor Edwards, 1881.
Etymology: Eduard Aleksandrovich Eversmann (1794-1860) - a prominent Russian entomologist, a Professor of the Kazan' University.
67. Driopa (eversmanni) litoreus (Stichel in Vytsman, 1907).
TYPE LOCALITY: the Lower Priamurye: Nikolaevsk-na-Amure.
RANGE: the eastern ridges of the Sikhote-Alin' mountain chain, the Amur River low reaches. A local species.
HABITAT: long-form meadows in brook sources at the tree line, at 600- 1200 m altitude.
FLIGHT PERIOD: middle July/middle August.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Corydalis gigantea (Kurenzov, 1970). Probably a biennial species (Y.N. Glushchenko).
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 29-39 mm; differs from felderi by a yellow colouration of males and from eversmanni by larger size and reduced red spots and elements of the grey pattern.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: The subspecies litoreus is known from the surroundings of Nikolaevsk-na-Amure, it approaches to felderi by pale- yellow colouration of the males and to eversmanni by a relatively small size; the Middle and Southern Sikhote-Alin' is inhabited by ssp. maui Bryk, 1914, differing by bright-yellow ground colour in males (A.N. Strel'tsov thinks this taxon belongs to P. felderi).
68. Driopa (eversmanni) felderi (Bremer, 1861).
TYPE LOCALITY: "Chinghah" - by the lectotype (Tschikolovets, 1993), "im Bureja-Gebrige: according to the original description.
RANGE: The northern spurs of the Malyy Hinghan mountain range (Raddeevka, Kul'dur, Obluchshye, the Dusse-Alin' mountain range, the Kerbi River headwaters). A local species.
HABITAT: damp forest meadows on open slopes, in brook and rivulet valleys, where Corydalis gigantea grows.
FLIGHT PERIOD: late June/late July.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied by A.N. Strel'tsov (1995). Foodplant: Corydalis gigantea. Eggs: 1.1-1.3 mm in diameter, brownish-white, dark- brown at the micropyle, almost spherical but flattened beneath, with a rough grainy sculpture becoming fine reticulate at the micropyle; laid at the foodplant. Eggs or young larvae hibernate. Young larvae feed openly at daytime, especially active in sunny weather. Mature larva: 38-43 mm; resembles the colour of C. gigantea foliage: dark green, lighter dorsally, set with short hairs, with a yellow lengthwise stripe and black triangular spots on either side of each segment, and a chain of trapecia-like black yellow-rimmed spots on the back. Before pupation in middle July the larva spins a relatively dense silken cocoon-like shelter right between the foodplant leaves. Pupa: castane-brown, with small rounded crests at the wing cases; the cremaster is roundish with two symmetrical convexities in the fore part and roughly grainy in the hind part. (Probably pupation is impossible on very wet ground of meadowy brook banks where the foodplants grow).
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 30-40 mm; the wings are white or yellowish-white in both sexes, red spots are usually absent or rudimentary, sexual dimorphism is expressed in the grey semitransparent bands being wider and more distinct in females. Similar species: D. litoreus.
SYSTEMATIC NOTE: in the headwaters of the Kerbi River and on the pass from there to the Bureya basin individuals of D. felderi and D. eversmanni were found by E.N. Novomodnyi in 1978 to fly together and so proved to be different species. Later these observations were repeated by A. V.-A. Kreuzberg.
ETYMOLOGY: Cajetan Felder - an Austrian lepidopterologist, who treated the materials from Japan and China in 60s-70s years of XIX century.
69. Driopa clarius (Eversmann, 1843) (= ariadne Ackery, 1973 et auct., nec Lederer, 1853)
TYPE LOCALITY: "Tarbagatai" - by the lectotype (Tschikolovets, 1993).
RANGE: An endemic of the Altai, Tarbagatai and Saur Mts., once reported for Tuva (surroundings of Turan, the stow Khaybar).
HABITAT: meadows alternating with screes and rocks on steep southern slopes and plateau at altitudes of 300-1800 m. The imagines were observed to feed almost exclusively on the flowers of Dracocephalum nutans.
FLIGHT PERIOD: late May/late July, depending on altitude and seasonal peculiarities.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied by Y.A. Shevnin and P.Y. Gorbunov in W Altai and K. Vodyanov in N Altai. Foodplants: only Corydalis nobilis has been reported. Eggs: purple, hemispheric, with a dimple on the apex; laid on the flowers of Dracocephalum nutans or other substrates near the foodplants, the shoots of which have already been died in middle June. Hibernation occurs at the egg stage. Mature larvae were observed in May on the foodplants and in June (when the imagines flew!) mostly on stones and detritus. They are coal-black with a row of small oval orange spots on either side (by one spot at the hind margin of each segment); 1st segment has two spots on either side, the fore of which containing a black dot. The osmeterium is orange-yellow. All the body has short dense black hairs. Segments 4 to 12 bear six small glossy warts each, but segments 2 and 3 have by eight of them, forming a straight row. The pupae is brown with a waxy bloom, it is found beneath stones in frail silk shelter.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: 28-35 mm; wings are yellowish-white, the fore wing has two waving semitransparent submarginal bands as different from D. eversmanni, which has three of them; the hind wing - a dentate submarginal band; on the hind wing underside the red spots are absent at the base but present in the postdiscoidal area.
SYSTEMATIC NOTES: This species, described by E. Eversmann as clarius, recently got to be named ariadne Kindermann in Lederee, 1853) thanks to the existence of the name clarius Herrich-Schaffer, 1843. However, the name ariadne was taken from misunderstood work of Lederer (1653: 354) in which the name ariadne Kindermann was in fact opposited to clarius Eversmann and synonymized to clarius Herrich-Shaffer, which is in turn a synonym to a Caucasian species Driopa nordmanni Ménétriés. In this respect we hereby recover the name by Eversmann, taken also into account that the name clarius Herrich-Shaffer was used only in synonymy.
GENUS SACHAJA Korshunov, 1988.
Type species: Parnassius tenedius Eversmann, 1851.
F.w.l.: 17-31 mm; the wings are white, often with a yellowish tint, in females - with a dark suffusion. The pattern consists of small separate black spots or strokes, the reddish or yellowish spots on the hind wings are elongate and may be reduced. The sphragis is small and irregular in shape. The larvae develop on Corydalis.
The genus ranges in the mountain regions of North Asia from Altai to Chukotka and includes 2 species.
70. Sachaja tenedius (Eversmann, 1851).
TYPE LOCALITY: the East Sayan: the Khalugaisha River.
RANGE: West Altai (the Narymskii mt. range), SE [Russian] Altai (the Kuraiskii mt. range), Tuva (the settlement Shurmak), the East Sayan, Pribaikalye, East Siberia, the Mongolia (Khubsugul and Central Ainaks). A local species.
HABITAT: open forests and, mostly, burnt and felled areas, pits, dumps, other places with disturbed soil, where the foodplant grows; in the mountains of South Siberia - in the upper part of the forest belt at altitudes of 1000-2600 m, in the northern range - predominantly in the valleys. The butterflies are active only in the sunny weather, when the sun disappears they sit on the stones for a long time with spread wings. In Altai the feeding of imagines was observed on the flowers of Iris humilis.
FLIGHT PERIOD: in Altai: late April/late June, in the mountains of NE Siberia - late May/early July until July.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Corydalis capnoides was reported for Altai (K. Vodyanov), C. sibirica - for Central Siberia (Y.N. Glushchenko), also reported was Lagotis integrifolia, that does not seem correct. In captivity the larvae developed successfully on the European species of Corydalis. Eggs: white, glossy, with a fine cell sculpture, hemispheric with a dimple at the apex; laid singly (sometimes in a row by 5-7, often several eggs are laid per one plant) on the young foodplants or near it. Larva: dark brown with a row of pale-orange spots along the back and two similar rows on either side. The larvae hatch 7-10 days after oviposition, pupate in the middle of the summer, the pupae hibernate, sometimes twice or thrice.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 24-31 mm. The red spots on the hind wings are present, they are small and to some extent stretched along the veins.
GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: The butterflies from various mountain regions of South Siberia are quite similar and should be attributed to the subspecies tenedius (= vulcanus Bryk et Eisner, 1932, described from Altai; = sceptica Bryk et Eisner, 1932, described from Pribaikalye and the Stanovoe Nagorye upland). An East Siberian subspecies britae Bryk, 1932 differs by in general smaller size, in females there are a yellowish tint on the wings and the greyish marginal spots on the hind wings ate fused into a contiguous margin about 2 mm wide.
71. Sachaja ammosovi Korshunov, 1988. (= arctica auct.)
TYPE LOCALITY: the Suntar-Khayata mountain range: the headwaters of the Verkhnyaya Khandyga River.
RANGE: An endemic of the mountains of Verkhoyanye. Only two reliable records are known: the headwaters of the Kele and Verkhnyaya Khandyga Rivers.
HABITAT: According to observations of P.Y. Gorbunov, the species keep strictly to characteristic screes of small black stones on south- exposed mountain slopes at 1300-1800 m altitude, where, however, the imagines are not frequently met with. They visit the flowers of Corydalis gorodkovi. As different from very stenotopic males, some females can migrate to adjacent habitats, such as the valley larch forests.
FLIGHT PERIOD: usually the second half of July.
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Eggs are laid singly at the bases of Corydalis gorodkovi plants (Y.N. Glushchenko). Probably a biennial species.
PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 17-23 mm. The wing colouration is variable; as different from S. tenedius, on the hind wing the red spots are as a rule absent, as an exception there may be the dots of a peculiar pale-red-brown colour on the corresponding places. In females the wings have large semitransparent areas.
SYSTEMATICAL NOTES: A negligent description of two resembling specimens (females) as Parnassius simo arctica Eisner, 1968, was published by Eisner; the type locality is not clear ("Werchnosensk", that probably means Verkhoyansk); the holotype, being a female, was indicated as a male. The identity of the taxa arctica and ammosovi is not still established. For a decision a special thorough investigation of the type specimens of arctica is necessary.
ETYMOLOGY: Yuriy Nikolaevich Ammosov (1936-1979) - the first Yakutian lepidopterologist, a researcher of the Yakutian Sector of the USSR Academy of Sciences.